212 GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND.
of the nobility and gentry, and is said to be growing. Its members were estimated, in 18G9, at 25,000.
The census of Ireland in 18G1 stated that there were 4,505,265 Roman Catholics, 693,357 persons belonging to the Established Church, 523,291 Presbyterians, 45,399 Methodists, 4,532 Inde- pendents, 4,237 Baptists, 3,695 Quakers, 393 Jews, and 15,666 individuals of other persuasions.
The Roman Catholic Church is under four archbishops, of Armagh, Cashel, Dublin, and Tuam, and twenty-three bishops. Eight of the bishops, viz. Ardagh, Clogher, Derry, Down and Connor, Dromore, Kilmore, Meath, and Raphoe, are suffragan to Armagh. Dublin has but three suffragans, viz. Kildare and Leighlin united, Ferns, and Ossory. Six are suffragan to Cashel, namely Ardfert and Aghadoe
usually called the Bishop of Kerry, Cloyne, and Ross — Cork,
Killaloe, Limerick, Waterford, and Lismore. Tuam has four suffra- gans, viz. Achonry, Clonfert, Killala, and Galway. The bishop of the united dioceses of Kilmacduagh and Kilfenora is alternately suffragan to the archbishops of Tuam and Cashel. The wardenship of Galway, formerly an exempt jurisdiction, subject only to the triennial visita- tion of the archbishop of Tuam, has been lately erected into a bishopric, under its former archiepiscopal jurisdiction. On the death of a bishop, the clergy of the diocese elect a vicar-capitular, who exercises spiritual jurisdiction during the vacancy. They also nominate one of their own body, or sometimes a stranger, as successor to the vacancy, in whose favour they postulate or petition the Pope. The bishops of the province also present the names of two or three eligible persons to the Pope. The new bishop is generally chosen from among this latter number ; but the appoint- ment virtually rests with the cardinals, who constitute the congregation de propaganda fide. Their nomination is submitted to the Pope, by whom it is usually confirmed. In cases of old age or infirmity, the bishop nominates a coadjutor, to discharge the episcopal duties in his stead ; and his recommendation is almost invariably attended to. The emoluments of a bishop arise from his parish, which is generally the best in the diocese, from licences of marriage, &c, and from the cathedraticum. The last is an annual sum, varying from 21. to 10Z., according to the value of the parish, paid by the incumbent, in aid of the maintenance of the episcopal dignity. The parochial clergy are nominated exclusively by the bishop. The incomes of all descriptions of the Roman Catholic clergy of Ireland arise partly from fees on the celebration of births, marriages, and masses ; and partly, and principally, from Christmas and Easter dues, and other voluntary offerings. All places of worship are built by subscription. There are numerous monasteries and convents.
The established Protestant Church of Ireland, formerly in union with the Church of England, under two archbishops, and ten bishops,