Page:Statesman's Year-Book 1899 American Edition.djvu/1019

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JUSTICE, CRIME, AND PAUPERISM — FINANCE

663

of the Civil Government of the province. The Consistorium, which has no jurisdiction in the school administration, and the Provincial Schul-Collcgium are separate provincial authorities, not sections of the same authority. As a general rule, the administration of school funds provided by the State is iinder the control of the Civil Government, which likewise takes upon itself nearly the whole management of the lower and elementary schools, while the Schul- Collegium is responsible for the higher schools and the normal schools, for the general system of instruction and discipline therein, the proper selection of school books, the examination and appointment of masters, and the examination of those who leave school for the Universities.

According to the Constitution of 1850, all persons are at liberty to teach, or to form establishments for instruction, provided they can prove to the authorities their moral, scientific, and technical qualifications. But private as well as public establishments for education are placed under the super- intendence of the jMinister of Public Instruction, while all public teachers are considered, directly or indii'ectly, State servants.

In the budget of 1896-97 the sum of 83,321,2.51 marks was set down for direct expenditure on public instruction ; 4,164,615 marks for expenditure on science and art ; 11,293,080 marks on technical instruction.

Justice, Crime, and Pauperism.

Prussia contains 15 Oberlandesgerichte (see German Empire, p. 540). The Oberlandesgericht at Berlin is called the Kammergericht, and serves as an ultimate appeal court for summary convictions ; though for all cases the court of final instance is the Reichsgericht at Leipzig. The prosecution in all criminal cases is conducted by Staatsanivdlte, or public prosecutors, paid by the State. In 1896 there were 284,356 criminal convictions in Prussia, or 128-2 for every 10,000 inhabitants above the age of twelve. The fol- lowing table shows for the different provinces in 1895, the number of convictions and the proportion per 10,000 inhabitants 12 years of age and upwards : —

Provinces

Criminals

Provinces

Criminals

Persons

Per

Persons

Per

Con-

10,000

Con-

10,000

victed

Inhab.

victed 8,557

Inhab.

East Prussia .

23,174

169-9

Schleswig-Holstein

95-0

"West Prussia

18,832

189-7

Hanover

17,166

100-6

Berlin (City).

22,020

171-2

Westphalia .

18,685

102-7

Brandenburg.

24,880

124-4

Hesse-Nassau

12,083

96-0

Pomerania

14,282 130-5

Rhineland

34,840

98-4

Posen .

19,715 162-5

Hohenzollern

342

70-6

Silesia .

46,715 : 151-5

Saxony

23,064 ! 123-5

Total .

284,356

128-2

Finance.

The following table gives the revenue and expenditure during each of the six years ending March 31 from 1893 to 1898,