Cardinal- Priests — cout,
Joseph Laboure Guillaume Marie Ro-
Cardinal-Deacons . Teodolfo Mertel .
Office or Dignity
Arclibp. of Reiines , , Rouen
Andreas Steinhuber Francesco Segna Raffaele Pierotti
Vice-Cliancellor of\ Holy Roman Church/ Secretary of Apo stolic Briefs . Prefect Congr. Index
YearoflY^"^"^^ Birth Cjea- tion
1832 I 1889
1825 i 1893
Of these Cardinals 5 were nominated by Pope Pio IX., and 51 by Leone XIII,; 30 are Italian (continental or insular), and 27 not; 3 are British subjects. Under the present Roman Pontiff there have hitherto died 123 Cardinals, of whom 65 were of his own creation.
Though primarily belonging to the local Roman Church, the Cardinals are regarded as Princes of the Church at large. Original iv they were simply the parish rectors of Rome, or the deacons of districts there. In 1586 their number was finally settled by Sisto V. at seventy. The Cardinals compose the Pope's Council and the various Sacred Congregations, govern the Church while the Pontifical throne is vacant, and elect the deceased Pontiffs successor. They received the distinction of the red hat under Innocenzo IV., during the Council of Lyons, in 1246; and the title of Eminence from Urbano VIII., in 1630.
In 1898, besides the Pope and the Sacred College of Cardinals, the upper Catholic Hierarchy throughout the world comprised 8 patriarchates of the Latin and 6 of the Oriental Rite, 174 archbishoprics of the Latin and 18 of the Oriental Rite, and 720 bishoprics of the Latin and 53 of the Oriental Rite. Tlie list was as follows: —
Latin Rite: — 1. Constantinople; 2, Alexandria; 3. Antioch; 4, Jeru- salem; 5, Venice; 6, Lisbon; 7. West Indies; 8. East Indies.
Oriental Eite: — 1. Antioch, of the Maronites; 2. Antioch, of the Mel- chites; 3. Antioch, of the Syrians; 4. Babylon, of the Chalda^ans; 5. Cilicia, of the Armenians; 6, Alexandria, of the Copts.
Latin Rife: —
Immediately subject to the
Holy See With Ecclesiastical Pro- vinces .... Oriental Rite: — With Ecclesiastical Provinces Armenian Rite Graeco-Rumanian Rite
Syro-]VIaronite Rite .