Page:Statesman's Year-Book 1899 American Edition.djvu/1105

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PRODUCTION OK INDUSTRY

741J

Rome, the Basilicata, and Sardinia. In Upper Italy the agreement is usually for nine (sometimes other multiples of three) years ; in Southern Italy for two, four, or six years, according to local customs.

Large farms (la grande coltura) exist in the neighbourhood of Vercelli, Pavia, Milan, Cremona, Chioggia, Ferrara, Gro.sseto, Rome, Caserta, and iu Apulia, the Basilicata, Calabria, and at Girgenti and Trapani in Sicily. In Italy generally the land is much subdivided.

the area of Italy comprises 28,658,900 hectares. Of this area, 20,238,000 hectares (70*6 per cent.) is productive, 4,647,451 hectares (16 "2 per cent.) unproductive, and 3,773,449 hectares (13*2 per cent.) produces little or nothing. Agriculture is generally in a primitive condition. The areas and produce of the various crops in 1895 and produce in 1896 and 1897, so far as officially ascertained, are shown in the following table : —

Area

Produce |

_

Total

Per

Hectare

1895

1895

1895

1896

1897

Hectares

Hectolitres

Hectares

Hectolitres

Hectares

Wheat .

4,593,000

41,499,000

51,180,000

30,630,000

9-03

Maize

1,957,000

24,838,000

23,160,000

21,074,000

12-69

Oats

474,000

6,764,000

14-28

Barley

297,000

2,620,000

3,544,000

9-11

Rye .

137,000

1,413,000

"""

10-30

Rico

163,000

5,994,000

3,761,000

6,430,000

36-86

Pulse

849,000

4,080,000

4-84

Quintals

Quintals

Quintals

Quintals

Hemp

105,000

757,000

7-18

Flax

52,00C

203,000

3-90

Potatoes .

209,000

7,022,000

33-67

Chestnuts

412,000

2,633,000

1,633,000

6 40

Hectolitres

Hectolitres

Hectolitres

Hect.

Wine

3,462,000

24,246,000

28,396,000

25,959,000

7-00

Olive oil .

1,034,000

2,894,000

1,912,000

1,290,000

2-80

Kilogrammes

Kiloga'ammcs

Kilogrammes

Kilog.

Tobacco .

5,245

6,743,000

5,911.000

6,210,000

1-287

Silk cocoons .

41,152,000

39,844,000

36,726,000

Plants

Number

Number

Number

Per plants

Acid fruits

17,085,000

3,337,400,000

3,464,000,000

19-5

The wheat yield in 1898 was 47,000,000 hectolitres. The area under tobacco in 1896 was 4,902 hectares ; in 1897, 4,798 ; regarding other crops, there are no more recent statistics than those given in the table.

In 1890 Italy had 5,000,000 cattle, 6,900,000 sheep, 1,800,000 goats, 1,800,000 swine. In 1897 Italy exported 37,226 and imported 17,850 cattle ; exported 38,603 and imported 8,134 sheep ; exported 887 and imported 5,152 goats ; exported 40,066 and imported 3,779 swine. In 1895 the pro- duction of wool was 9,777,000 kilogrammes, of the value of 16,725,000 lire.

Silk culture, though flourishing most extensively in Piedmont and Lombardy, is carried on all over Italy. In 1895 there were 550,048 persons employed in rearing silkworms, and 172,000 skilled and other workers (in- cluding nine-tenths women and children) were employed in the treatment and manufacture of silk. The production of silk in 1896, was 3,083,000 kilo- grammes ; in 1897, 2,916,000 kilogrammes.

In the census of December 31, 1881, there were 5,024,826 malesof 15 years of age and upwards described as engaged in agriculture. The entire agricul- tural population, male and female, of 15 years and upwards, was thus about 10,000,000.