Page:Statesman's Year-Book 1899 American Edition.djvu/1122

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766

JAPAN

appeal, and sometimes in courts of first instance, a president and four judges, to try serious crimes.

A few judges of high rank are directly appointed by the Emperor, and some are appointed by him on nomination by the Minister of Justice. The following are the criminal statistics for five years : —

— ■

1891

1892

1893 1894

1895

Serious crimes Lesser ,,

Total .

3,260

154,087

3,249

166,884

3,129 172,489

2,999 182,826

2,858 163,672

157,678

170,133

175,618

185,825

166,530

There are eight State prisons, 130 local prisons, reforaiatories at least in each Fu and Ken, also 7 military prisons, and 4 naval prisons. Number of prisoners of all kinds, convicted and accused, and those in reformatories, at the close of 1895 :— Men, 72,651 ; women, 5,412 ; total, 78,063.

Pauperism.

Government reserves an amount of 22,290,001 yen for a relief fund, and grants relief out of the interest of the fund. The amount thus granted in 1895-96 was 129,596 yen for food to 4,911,159 persons (counting the same person as different for each day), 145,438 yen for provisional dwellings to 45,534 families, 28,315 yen for instruments of agriculture to 8,343 families, 40,162 yen for seed grain to 27,757 families, 11,483 yen for subsidy of land tax to 13,528 families, and 27,170 yen for loan of land tax to 14,297 families. The central Government also grants relief to the extremely poor, the helpless, and friendless; in 1895, 20,891 persons were thus relieved, to the amount of 141,450 yen, as compared with 6,018 persons and 44,800 in 1883-84. In the end of 1895, 4,548 foundlings were being maintained. There is a work- house in Tokio, with 538 paupers at the end of 1894, as compared with 108 in 1884 ; income, 1894-95, 21,232 yen ; expenditure, 16,971 yen.

Finance. I. Imperial.

The following are the revenue and expenditure for five fiscal years, the amounts for the years 1895-96 and 1896-97 being provisional accounts, and for 1897-98 estimates : —

1893-94

1894.95 1895-96

1896-97

1897-98

Revenue . . . Expenditure , .

Yen

89,042,210 84,581,872

Yen

92,421,605 78,128,643

Yen 98,390,615 85,317,179

Yen

153,665,203 16.'>, 162,360

Yen

238,709,484 249,547,286

The figures for 1897-98 include in the receipts 50,500,000 yen from the Chinese indemnity, and 61,300,000 yen of loans.

The following are the budget estimates for the year ending 31 March, 1898 :—