Prince Albert, born November 13, 1848 ; succeeded his fatlier, Prince Charles III., September 10, 1889 ; married (1) to Lady Mary Douglas Hamilton, September 1, 1869 ; ^ (2) to Alice Duchess-Dowager de Richelieii. Son by first wife, Prince Louis, born July 12, 1870.
Monaco is a small Principality in the Mediterranean, surrounded by the French Departement of Alpes Maritimes excepting on the side towards the sea. From 968 it belonged to the house of Grimaldi. In 1715 it passed into the female line, Louise Hippolyte, daughter of Antony I., heiress of Monaco, marrying Jacques de Goyon Matignon, Count of Thorigny, who took the name and arms of Grimaldi. Antony I died in 1731, Louise Hippolyte only reigning ten months and dying in 1732. She was succeeded by her husband under the name of Jacques I., who also succeeded Antony I. as Due di Valentinois, who was in his turn succeeded 1)y his son Honorius III. This prince was dispossessed by the French Revolution in 1792, and died in 1795. In 1814 the Principality was re-established, but placed under the protection of the Kingdom of Sardinia by the Treaty of Vienna (1815).
In 1848 Mentone and Roquebrune revolted, and declared themselves free towns ; in 1861 Charles III. ceded his rights over them to France, and the Principality thus became geographicall}^ an enclave of France, when the Sardinian garrison was withdrawn and the Protectorate came to an end.
Ever since the year 1819 the Government of the Principality have adopted the French Codes and possessed a Court of First Instance, as well as a Juge de Paix's Court. A Court of Appeal is constituted by the Prince's appointment of two Paris judges wlio act as such when necessary.
The Principality has its own coinage which is current since 1876 in all the States of the Latin Union ; it also issues its own separate postage-stamps. There is a Governor-General and a Council of State.
The area is eight square miles. Population, 1890, 13,304. Towns : Monaco, 3,292; Condamine, 6,218; Monte Carlo, 3,794.
There is a Roman Catholic bishop. No church, except the Roman Catholic, is allowed in the Principality. Exclusive of the 'guard of honour,' the troops consist of 5 officers and 70 men. Olive oil, oranges, citrons, and perfumes are exported. The industries and trade are unimportant, and the revenue is mainly derived from the gaming tables. These are in the hands of a Joint-Stock Company which holds a concession for 50 years from 1863, granted by Prince Charles III. The capital of the company consists of 1,200,000/. in 60,000 fully paid up 20Z. shares. In return for the concession there is annually paid to the Prince the sum of 50,000/. and for the adminis- tration of justice, police, &c., within the Ferine ipality a further sum of 20,000/. The company also expends for State purposes (church, education, lighting, water, roads, races, &c.) 60,000/., the total expenditure on Prince and Principality being about 130,000/. The maintenance of the Casino proper (including 25,000/. for press subventions) cost in 1897, 834,000/., and the dividend paid to shareholders amounted to 576,000/. ; total expenditure in 1897, 1,540,100/.
Consul-General for Monaco in London. — Th. Lumley.
British Consul. — Sir J. C. Harris (residing at Nice).
British Vice-Consul. — J. W. Keogh (residing at Monaco). Books of Reference.
Boyer de Ste. Suzanne (R. de), La Principante de Monaco. 12. Paris, 18S4.
Harris (J. C), Monaco : Pieces Ilistoriques et Trait.es. Nice, 1882.
Metivier (Henri), Monaco et ses Princes. 2 vols. 8. La Fleche. 1S62.
Play fair (Sir R. L.), Handbook (Murray's) to the Mediterranean. 3rd ed. 2 vols. S. London, 1890.
Saige (G.), Monaco, ses Origines et son Histoirc. Paris, 1898.
1 The religious marriage was annulled by the Court of Rome (Papal Court) on January S, 1880, and the civil maniage declared dissolved by decree of the reigning Prince on July 28, 1880.