Page:Statesman's Year-Book 1899 American Edition.djvu/1205

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RELIGION — FINANCE 849

Religion.

The Government contributes 10,050^. for religious purposes. The State is divided into 36 parochial districts for ecclesiastical purposes. There are about 80 churches. The principal body, according to the last census (1890), is the Dutch Reformed Church with 68,940 adherents ; of Wesleyans there are 753 ; English Episcopalians, 1,353 ; Lutherans, 312 ; Roman Catholics, 466 ; Jews, 113.

Instruction.

The system of education is national. Small grants are also made to the Episcopal and Roman Catholic Churches. The Government schools are managed by local boards, partly elected and partly appointed by Govern- ment, which choose the teachers, who are ap pointed by the President, if he is satisfied with their qualifications. Education is compulsory to some extent and free for very poor children. In 1897, about 52,000<f. was allotted to education, a portion of which consisted of interest on a capital of 200,000/. set apart by the Volksraad for this purpose. Besides this amount a considerable sum was spent upon school buildings under the Public Works Department. There are no foundations, properly so called, for educa- tion. In 1897 there were 179 Government schools, inclusive of the two higher schools and the infant school at Bloemfontein, with 7,390 pupils and 263 teachers. Grants are made to private schools on certain conditions. In 1897 there were 37 such schools, with 650 pupils. The Grey College, the highest school for boys, prepares candidates for the matriculation examina- tion of the Cape University ; and the ' Eunice ' Institute is a similar school for girls.

At the census of 1890 45,015 of the white population could read and write. 2,721 only read, 23,722 (of whom 19,508 were under 7 years of age) could neither read nor write, while 6,258 were not specified.

There is a good public library in Bloemfontein, and small libraries in several villages.

There is a Government Gazette, two daily and two bi-weekly papers.

Justice and Crime.

The Roman Dutch law prevails. The superior courts of the country are the High Courts of Justice, with three judges, and the circuit courts. The inferior courts are the court of the Landdrost and the court of Landdrost and Heemraden. The circuit courts, at which the judges of the High Court preside in turn, are held four times a year at Bloemfontein and twice a year in the chief town of every district. In these courts criminal cases are tried before a jury. The court of Landdrost and Heemraden consistsof the Land- drost (a stipendiary magistrate) and two assessors. The Landdrost's court thus has both civil and criminal jurisdiction. There are also justices of the peace who try minor offences and settle minor disputes.

There are no statistics of crime. There are police-constables in every town, and mounted police patrol the countr)\

Finance.

The following is a statement of revenue and expenditure for the three years ending February 1805, for the ten months ending December 1895, and for the calendar years 1896 and 1897 : —

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