Page:Statesman's Year-Book 1899 American Edition.djvu/1225

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RELIGION — INSTRUCTION

869

The Republic is divided into nineteen departments, the area and population of which were reported as follows at the last census taken (in 1876) :-

Area :

Area :

Departments

English

Population

Departments

English

Population

square miles

-

square miles

Piura .

13,931

135,502

lea

6,295

60,111

Cajamarca .

14,188

213,391

Ayacucho

24,213

142,205

Amazonas .

14,129

34,245 '

Cuzco .

95,547

238,445

Loreto

32,727

61,125 •

Puno .

39,743

256,594

Libertad .

15,649

147,541

Arequipa

27,744

160,282

Ancachs .

17,405

284,091

Moquegua

22,516

28,786

Lima . . ) Callao . /

14,760

/ 226,922 t 34,492

Apurlinac

62,325

119,246

Lambayeque

17,939

85,984

Huancavelica . Huanuco . \ Junin . . /

10,814 33,822

104,155 / 78,856 \ 209,871

Total

463,747

2,621,844

There are, besides, many uncivilised Indians, but their numbers are absolutely unknown.

It is believed that the population is nearly stationary owing to the great infant mortality in the lower classes, as well as to small-pox and alcoholism among the Indians.

As a result of the war with Chile, the latter country has annexed the province of Tarapaca. The Chilians have also occupied the provinces of of Tacna and Arica for fourteen years. A popular vote should in 1894 have decided to which country they are to belong, but owing to the failure of nego- tiations for arriving at a modus operandi, the decision was deferred. A convention for the purpose of carrying out the plebiscite was signed at Santiago, April 16, 1898.

Religion.

By the terms of the Constitution there exists absolute political, but not religious freedom, the charter prohibiting the public exercise of any other religion than the Roman Catholic, which is declared the religion of the State. But practically there is a certain amount of tolerance, there being Anglican churches and missionary schools in Callao and Lima. In 1897 an Act was passed removing certain marriage disabilities of non-Catholics, so that marriages of such persons solemnised by Diplomatic or Consular officers or by ministers of dissenting Churches shall, if registered, be valid, and those solemnised before the passing of the Act, if registered before the end of 1899, shall be valid. At the census of 1876 there were 5,087 Protestants, 498 Jews ; other religions, 27,073.

Instruction.

Elementary education is compulsory for both sexes, and is irce in the public schools that are maintained by the municipalities. High schools are maintained by the Government in the capitals of the departments, and in some i>rovinoes pupils pay a moderate fee. There is in Lima a central univer- .sity, called * Universidad de San Marcos,' the most ancient in America ; its charter was granted by the Emperor Carlos V. ; it has faculties of juris- prudence, medicine, political science, theology, and applied science. Lima