the land, parts ^Yitll all his rights in the holding except that of receiving quit-rent, the right to distrain if the (juit-rent be withheld, and the right of eviction if the foro be unpaid for more than five years. Subject to these rights of the landlord, the tenant is master of the holding, which he can cultivate, improve, exchange, or sell ; but in case of sale the landlord has a right of pre-emption, compensated by a corresponding right in the tenant should the quit-rent be offered for sale. This system is very old — modifica- tions having been introduced by the civil code in 1868.
The chief cereal and animal x^roduce of the country are : — In the north, maize and oxen ; in the mountainous region, rye and sheep and goats ; in the central region, wheat and maize ; and in the south, wheat and swine, which fatten in the vast acorn woods. Throughout Portugal wine is pro- duced in large and increasing quantities. Olive oil, figs, tomatoes are largely produced, as are oranges, onions, and potatoes.
Portugal possesses considerable mineral Avealth, but coal is scarce, and, for want of fuel and cheap transport, valuable mines remain unworked. The quantity and value of the mineral produce in 1897 was : —
Copper precipitate ....
Copper ore ......
Ore for sulphur
Anthracite and lignite
Antimony ore .....
Manganese ore .....
Arsenic ore .....
Gold and silver
Tin and tin ore ..... Total
Common salt, gypsum, lime, and marble are exported. In 1897 the number of concessions of mines was 470 ; the area conceded extended to 30,240 hectares.
There are three cotton factories at work for exportation to Angola. The population engaged in industries of various kinds, exclusive of agriculture, in 1881 was 90,998.
Portugal has about 4,000 vessels engaged in fishing, and the exports of sardines and tunny fish are considerable.
The following table shows the value of the imports for con- sumption and the exports (including coin and bullion) for five years : —