Carol I. King of Rumania, l)orn April 20, 1839, son of the late Prince Karl of Hohcnzollern-Sigmaringen; elected ' Domn,' or Lord, of Rumania, April 20 (N.S.), 1866; entered Bucharest May 22 (N.S), 1866. Proclaimed King of Rumania March 26 (KS), 1881. Married, November 15, 1869, to Princess Elizabeth von Ncuivied, born Dec. 29, 1843.
The King has, in addition to revenues from certain Crown lands, an annual allowance of 1,185,185 lei', or 47,400?. The heir to the crown has an annual donation of 300,000 lei (12,000?.).
Tlie succession to the throne of Rumania, in the event of the King remain- ing childless, was settled, by Art. 83 of the Constitution, upon his elder brother. Prince Leopold of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, who renounced his rights in favour of his son. Prince AVilhelm, the act having been registered by the Senate in October 1880. Prince Wilhelm, on November 22, 1888, renounced his rights to the throne in favour of his brother, Prince Ferdinand, born August 24, 1865, who, by a decree of the King, dated March 18, 1889, was created 'Prince of Rumania.' Prince Ferdinand was married, January 10, 1893, to Princess Marie, daughter of the Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha; offspring of the union is Carol, born October 15, 1893; Elisabeth, born October 11, 1894.
The union of the two Principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia was publicly proclaimed at Bucharest and Jassy on Dec. 23, 1861, the present name being given to the united provinces. The first ruler of Rumania was Colonel Cuza, who had been elected ' Hospodar,' or Lord, of Wallachia and of Moldavia in 1859, and who assumed the government under the title of Prince Alexandru Joan L A revolution which broke out in February 1866 forced Prince Alexandru Joan to abdicate, and led to the election of Prince Carol 1. The representatives of the people, assembled at Bucharest, proclaimed Rumania's independence from Turkey, May 21, 1877, which was confirmed by Art. 43 of the Congress of Berlin, signed July 13, 1878.
Constitution and Government.
The Constitution now in force in Rumania was voted by a Constituent Assembly, elected by universal suffrage, in the summer of 1866. It has twice been modified — viz., in 1879, and again in 1884. The Senate consists of 120 members, elected for 8 years, including 2 for the Universities, and 8 bishops. The heir to the crown is also a Senator. The Chamber of Deputies consists of 183 members, elected for 4 years. A Senator must be 40 years of ago, and a Dejaity 25. Members of either House must be Rumanians liy birth or naturalisation, in full enjoyment of civil and political rights, and domiciled in the country. For the Senate an assured income of 9,400 lei (376?.) is required. AH citizens of full age, paying taxes,