AREA AND POPULATION
1893 1894 1895 1896 1897
8uriilu.s of BirMis over Deaths
222,324 227,469 238,957 232,417 247,814
170,005 176,483 156,755 166,189 171,071
41,200 50,323 43,228 47,230 41,387
Not included in the births and deaths are the still-horn, 3,690 (1'4 per cent, of the total births in 1897). The illegitimate births are (1891) 5'9:- per cent, of the total number.
According to the results of an inquiry for fiscal purposes in 1894, the population of the princijial towns was as follows : — Bucharest, the capital and seat of Government, 232,000; Jassy, 66,000; Galatz, 57,500; Braila, 51,120; Botosani, 31,800; Plocsti, 37,400; Craiova, 38,700; Berlad, 22,000 ; Focsani, 20,000. These numbers, however, are regarded as too low.
Religion and Instruction.
Of the total population of Rumania Proper it is estimated that 4,950,000 belong to the Orthodox Greek Church, 150,000 are Roman Catholics, 13,800 Protestants, 15,000 Armenians, 10,000 Lipovani (Russian heretics), 300,000 Jews, 20,000 to 30,000 Mahometans. The government of the Greek Church rests with two archbishops, the first of them styled the Primate of Rumania, and the second the Archbishop of Moldavia. There are, besides, six bishops of the National Church, and two Roman Catholic bishops. Only the clergy of the national orthodox church are recognised and ].)aid by the State.
Education is free and compulsory 'wherever there are schools,' but is still in a very backward condition. In 1896-97 there were 3,257 rural primary schools, with 4,078 teachers and 220,420 pupils (the rural .school population being estimated at 643,795). In 1895-96 the urban primary schools (361 in 1891) had 1,333 teachers and 77,863 pupils, of whom 15,659 were in private schools. The urban school population was estimated at 87,985. There are 8 normal schools, with 770 pupils ; 52 high schools and secondary schools, with 1,143 teachers and 18,969 pupils, besides special schools for agriculture, engineering, kc. There are 2 universities (Bucharest and Ja.ssy), with faculties in law, philosophy, science, and medicine, and having about 110 professors and teachers and 1,650 students. In 1896 the expenditure of the State for primary instruction was 9,140,527 lei, and on secondary, 5,970,942 lei.
The chief sources of revenue consist in direct and indirect taxes, and the profits derived from the extensive State domains and valuable salt-mines, and from the salt and tobacco monopolies. A tax, at the rate of 6 lei (4s. 9d.) pei head, called 'Contribution for means of Communication,' is, with certain exceptions, levied on all persons over 21 years of age. There is an income tax of 6 per cent, on houses, 5 })cr cent, for property farmed by a resident owner, 6 per cent, for property let by an owner resident in Rumania, and 12 per cent, for estates whose owners reside aliroad. The following table shows the I'evenue and exj)enditure for years ending March 31 (old style) : —