1006 SOUTH AFRICAN REPUBLIC
The official returns date from the year 1891. Of the gold output in 1897, 3,034,678 oz. (10,583,616Z.) were from Witwatersrand ; 113,972 oz. (398,902Z.) from De Kaap ; 50,942 oz. (178,296^. ) from Lydenburg ; 84,781 oz. (296,733Z.) from Klerksdorp ; 223 oz. (791Z.) from Zoutpansberg ; 5,120 oz. (17,922Z.) from Swaziland, &c. ; total output of 1897, 3,289,720 oz. (11,476,260^.). In 1897, according to returns furnished by 72 companies, the number of whites employed at the mines was 8,060, the amount paid to them in wages being 2, 521, 603 Z. ; the number of natives employed, according to these returns, was 50,791, but the total number employed was estimated at about 70,000. Working for silver, lead, and copper has been suspended since 1894 ; tin is found in Swaziland. Coal of fair quality is found near Witwatersrand and other goldfields ; the total output in 3 years has been : 1895, 1,133,466 tons; 1896, 1,437,297 tons; 1897, 1,600,212 tons (value 612,668^.).
Commerce and Communications
The principal exports are gold, wool, cattle, hides, grain, ostrich feathers, ivory, and minerals. The value of imports on which dues were charged amounted in 1894 to 6,440,215/.; in 1895 to 9,816,304/.; in 1896 to 14,088,130/. ; in 1897, 13,563,827/. The import duties amounted in 1896 to 1,355,486/., and in 1897 to 1,289,039/. The total imports in 1897 have been estimated at 21,515,000/., of which 17,012,000/. were from Great Britain, 2,747,000/. from the United States, 1,054,226/. from Germany, and the remainder from Belgium, Holland and France. In the official returns for 1897 the largest imports were clothing, 1,254,058/. ; machinery, 1,876,391/. ; railway material, 869,443/. ; iron wire, plates, &c., 864,126/.
The various railway lines connect the Eepublic with the Orange Free State, Cape Colony, Natal, and Portuguese East Africa. The total mileage open in September, 1898, was 774, imder construction 270, and projected 252.
The Republic is in telegraphic communication Avith the surrounding States and Colonies as far north as Blantyre, near Lake Nyasa. The lines within the State extend over 2,000 miles.
Weights and measures are the same as in Cape Colony, the currency is English money, and Government gold, silver, and bronze coin issued from a mint established in Pretoria. From 1892 to June 30, 1897, the nominal value of the coin issued from the mint was : gold, 1,342,415/. ; silver, 288,652/. ; bronze, 389/. ; total, 1,631,456/.
British Agent at Pretoria. — W. Conyngham Greene. Consiol- General in London. — Montagu White.
Swaziland. — The boundary lietween Swaziland and the South African Republic on the north, west, and south has been surveyed and beaconed off, but the whole of the Eastern boundary has not yet been beaconed off. The country has an area of about 8,500 square^ miles, with a population estimated at 40,000 to 60,000 natives and between 800 and 1,000 whites. During the winter months this number is increased by trekkers from the South African Republic. The language spoken is a dialect of Zulu, and the habits and customs are for the most part identical with those of Zululand.
By the Convention of 1884, between the British Government and the Government of 'the South African Republic, the independence of the Swazis was recognised ; by that of 1890, the government of the white i)opulation