perpetual external, 77,587,613?. : redeemable, 61,P57,600?. — total, 139,893,613?.
The Spanish frontiers are defended by the following fortified places : — On the north and north-west coast, Fuenterrabia, the fortified port of Passages, and the military ports of Santona and Santander, Ferrol, Coruna, Vigo ; in the Basque country, between the coast and the Ebro, are Bilboa and Vitoria ; in the country on the left bank of the Ebro are Pamplona, Tafalla, Jaca, Venasqua, Monzon, Puycerda, Seo de Urgel, Balagner, and Lerida ; between the Segre and the Mediterranean are Cardona, Hostalrich, Campredon, Ripoll, Gerona, Olot, Cartelfollit, Figueras ; on the Mediterranean, Palamos, Bar- celona, Tarragona, Malaga, Almeria, Carthagena, and Alicante ; on the Ebro are Logrono, Tudela, Zaragoza, Mequinenza, and Tortosa ; south of the Ebro are Burgos and Morella, Along the Portuguese frontier are Toro, Ciudad Rodrigo, Valencia de Alcantara, Albuquerque, and Badajoz ; Tarifa and Algeciras in the Strait of Gibraltar, and Cadiz at its entrance.
Under the military law of July 1, 1885, the armed forces of Spain consist of — 1, A permanent army ; 2. A first or active reserve ; 3. A second or sedentary reserve. All Spaniards past the age of 19 are liable to be drawn for the permanent army, in which they have to serve three years ; they then pass for three years into the first or active reserve, and for six years into the second reserve. By a payment of 1,500 pesetas any one may purchase exemption from service. For the colonial army the total period of service is eight years, four with the colours and four in the second reserve. By in- creasing the number of depot battalions, assigning to each reserve battalion a special district, and making it the essential basis of regimental organisation, both for recruits and for the reserves, it is hoped that in time Spain may be able easily to mobilise in case of necessity an army of 1,083,595 men.
The regular army of continental Spain is organised in 8 army corps, of which two contain each 3 divisions of infantry, three contain each 2 divisions, and three contain 1 division. Of cavalry, three of the army corps have each 1 division, and two have each 1 brigade. In the Balearic Islands, the Canaries and Ceuta there are altogether 3 divisions of infantry, and at ]\relilla 1 brigade. The regular army is composed as follows : —
Infantry. — 56 regiments and 50 regiments reserve.
Chnsscurs — 5 brigades and 10 battalions reserve.
Cavalry. — 28 regiments and 14 regiments reserve.
Artillery. — 17 regiments of field or mountain artillery, 5 battalions fortress artillery.
Sappers. — 4 regiments.
There is also' 1 regiment of pontooncrs ; 1 battalion railway troops ; 1 battalion of telegraphists ; 1 brigade for telegrajihic service ; 1 section of workmen ; 7 artillery depots ; 7 engineer depots ; 16 administrative companies ; 16 sanitary companies. Not included in the corps formation are 1 regiment of field artillery and 4 battalions of fortress artillery.
The following is the strength of the regular army in peace and war :—