Page:Statesman's Year-Book 1899 American Edition.djvu/491

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PRODUCTION AND INDUSTRY

147

study at agricultural colleges. It is chiefly in respect of the use of manures, of rotation of crops, of fodder raising and storing, of new staples, and of such appliances as improved sugar-mills, that the example or teaching of the agricultural departments and their agents is likely to have useful effect. Something has also been done towards introducing better breeds of cattle into some pro- vinces, and great attention has been paid to the improvement of the local breeds of horses, ponies, and mules. In provinces where the zamlnddri tenure prevails (i.e. where single pro- prietors or proprietary brotherhoods possess large estates of several hundreds or thousands of acres), the State revenue is assessed at an ali(]^uot part (usually al)out one half) of the ascertained or assumed rental. The revenue is payable on each estate as a whole ; the assessment remaining unchanged for the period of settlement. In provinces where the rdyaticdri tenure prevails (i.e. where each petty proprietor holds directly from the State, as a rule cultivates his own land, and has no landlord between himself and the Government), the revenue is separately assessed on each petty holding, and land revenue becomes pay- able at once (or after a short term of grace in the case of uncleared lands) on all extensions of cultivation. The rdyativdri proprietor may throw up his holding, or any portion of it, at the beginning of any year after reasonable notice whereas the zaminddr or large proprietor engages to pay the revenue assessed upon him throughout the term of the settlement. The following table shows, so far as returns are available, the class of tenure in each province during 1896-97 : —

Zainindari and Village Communities Raiyatwarf , &c. 1 _ Area Population Revenue Rtt I Area. Poi)ulation T^PVPTIIIP Surveyed. of Surveyed Surveyed ofSurveyed Rx. Uiiper Burma . Acres •2,82.3 Area XlfA.. 1 j Acres 49,411,624 Area 3,167,791 (a) (a) 655,097 Lower Burma . 159,859 (a) (a) 53,316,621 14,603,103 1,179,558 Assam 5,08-2,937 (a) 72,981 1 i 21,400,689 5,1,33,668 523,781 Bengal 98,015,273 70,414,425 3,919,799 1 — — — N.-W. Provinces 52,597,361 33,801,894 4,532,188 — — — Gudh 15,337,846 12,650,8.31 1,539,254 — — — A,jmere 1,693,728 542,358 44,217 — — Manpur — — — 38,871 5,343 1,240 Punjab 70,718,720 20,861,060 2,707,530 — — — Sind . — — — 29,934,983 2,871,774 779,760 Bombay 3,954,611 (a) (a) 44,861,329 ir,, 135, 725 3,018,607 Central' Pi'ovinoes 42,811,276 10,784,294 642,624 j 12,540,0961 (b) (b) 1 Bcrar — — — 11,332,580 2,897,040 710,975 1 Madras 29,529,005 10,352,624 696,820 1 60,876,887 25,277,816 4,552,749 ' Coorg — — — ' 1,012,260 173,055 r 35, 280

(a) included under Ruyatwarf, &c, (b) iniluded under Zamindari. 1 includns 11,324,675 acre.s of Government Forest.

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