Page:Statesman's Year-Book 1899 American Edition.djvu/511

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balijchistAn 1C7 on the E. by Bl'ltisli India, on the S. by the Arabian Sea, on the V\. by Persia. Includes (1) Independent Bah'ichistan ; (2) Quetta and the Bolan, administered on the Khan's liehalf liy tlie British Government ; (3) British Baluchistan ; (4) certain Afghan and Baluch tri])cs on the Indian frontier. The leading chief of independent Baluchistan is Mir Mahnuid Khan, Khiin of Khelat, who succeeded on the abdication of his father, Mir Khudadiid Khun in August, 1893. KhAns of Khelat since 1700.

Abdulhi Kluln. Muhabbat Khan. Nasir Khan I., 1755-1795. Mahmiid Khan.

Melmib Khan, 1819-184(3; Shah Nawaz Khan, abdicated. Nasir Khiin II., 1840-1857. Khudadad Khan, 1857-1893.

Mir Mahmiid Khan, reigning. The power of the Brahul Khans of Khelat was founded towards the end of the seventeenth century by a hill chief named Kumbar. Called in to protect the Hindu Raja of Khelat against marauders from the east, Kumbar tirst expelled these invaders, and then overthrew the Hindu dynasty. His successors gradually made themselves supreme from Khelat to the Arabian Sea, and about 1740 Abdulla Khan, the fourth Brahul Khan of Khelat, was acknowledged as chief of Baluchistan by Nadir Shah. The districts of Quetta and Mastang were granted to Abdulla's son, Nasir Khan I., by Ahmad Shah, the Duranl King of Afghanistan. Nasir Khan's grandson, Mehrab Khan, was killed in the storming of Khelat by a British force in 1839. His son, Nasir Khan II., was acknowledged by the British Govern- ment in 1841 ; and in 1854 a treaty was executed with him, under the terms of which he received a yearly sub.sidy of 50,000 nipees. Nasir Khan was succeeded by his brother, Khudadad Khan, with whom a fresh treaty was concluded in December, 1876, by which the subsidy was raised to 100,000 rupees a year. Khudadad Khan also made over the district of Quetta to be administered by British officers, at first receiving the surplus revenue, but since 1882 an annual quit-rent of 25,000 rupees. He also received 30,000 rupees per annum as compensation for his right to levy transit dues on merchandi.se in the Bolan Pass. In 1893, Khudadad Khan was found guilty of murdering his Minister and other subjects, and was permitted to abdicate. His son, Jklir Muhammad Khan, has succeeded to all his rights and privileges. The Khan of Khelat is at the head of a confederacy of chiefs, but his ))owers cannot be precisely defined. In all important matters he is amenable to the advice of the Agent to the Governor-General in Baluchistan, who also arbitrates in disputes between the Khan and minor chiefs. The area of Baluchi.stan is al)0ut 130,000 scpiare miles. This includes (1) the greater part of Baluchistan ruled Ity a confedeiation of chiefs under the suzerainty of the Khan of Khelat ; (2) the districts of Quetta and the Bolan administered on the Khan's behalf by British officials ; (3) the As' .ligned Districts of Pishin, Shorarud, Kachh, Pvawas, Harnai, Sibi, and Thai Chotiali, which formerly belonged to Afghanistan, and are now directly under British rule ; (4) the Afghan tribes between the Amir's territory and India ; and (5) the Baluch tribes, known as Marris and Bugtis. Total popu- lation of Baluchistan (British and Independent), about 500,000. The nomad Baluchis are the most widely spread race, the Brahuls of the eastern plateau being the dominant race. During the year 1888-89 the district of Khetran was brought under