THE BRITISH EMPIRE: — CANADA
The total burden of the debt, after deducting assets, is lOZ. 9.?. 6d. per head, and of the annual charge for interest and management 8s. 6^d. The expenditure on canals and railways alone by the Government amounted to over 34 millions sterling up to 1897. At the census of 1891 it was found that the value of the capital invested in manufacturing industries of various kinds was 72 millions sterling, and the annual value of the products 97 millions.
Provincial Revenues, Expenditures, and Debts, 1897.
New Brunswick .
Prince Edward Island
21,718,476 2,303,928 2,488,578
The Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence form a barrier between Central Canada and the United States, but the eastern provinces and Western Canada have neither natural barriers nor fortifications. With the exceptions of Halifax, a small fort at St. John, New Brunswick, and the fortifications at Esquimalt on the Pacific coast, there are practically no fortifications in Canada. Esquimalt is used as a victualling yard.
In addition to the troops maintained by the Imperial Government — the strength of which was reduced, in the year 1871, to 2,000 men, forming the garrison of the fortress of Halifax, considered an * Imperial Station ' — Canada has a large militia force. By the terms of the Act passed in March 1868 the militia consists of all male British subjects between 18 and 60, who may be called out to serve in four classes, according to age and condition, married or single. The militia is divided into an active and a reserve force. The active includes the land and marine militia, and consists of those who voluntarily enlist, or of men balloted, or in part of both. The active militia serve for three years. The reserve militia consists of the whole of the men between the ages of 18 and 60 not serving in the active militia of the time being, with certain exemptions. The number of men to be drilled annually is limited to 45,000 and the period of drill to 16 days every year. The establishment of the active militia, June 30. 1897, amounted to 36,204 officers and men, comprising 9 regiments, 1 squadron, 3 troops of cavalry ; 1 brigade, 15 batteries of field artillery ; 5 battalions, 9 companies of garrison artillery ; 2 companies of engineers ; and 91 battalions, 6 companies of infantry. The permanent corps, coml)ined with which are schools of in- struction, consist of the Royal Canadian Dragoons (2 troops), Royal Canadian Artillery (3 batteries), and the Royal Canadian Regiment of Infantry (4 com- panies). The establishment is 868 of all rapk*. There is also a Royal