Page:Statesman's Year-Book 1899 American Edition.djvu/772

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41G

BELGIUM

simply read and write, 1,160 could only read, 23,292 had more complete instruction, and concerning 706 there was no return.

Justice and Crime.

Judges are appointed for life by the King from lists prepared by the Senate and by the Court. There is one Court of Cassation for the whole kingdom. There are three Courts of Appeal, and there are Assize Courts for criminal cases. The country is divided into 26 judicial arrondissements or districts, in each of which is a Court of first instance. In each canton there is a justice of the peace, a police court, and a judge of the peace ; there are 216 such cantons. There are, besides, special military, commercial, and other tribunals. There is trial by jury in all criminal and political cases. The Gendarmerie (2,586) and the Garde Civique are utilised for the maintenance of internal order.

The following table shows the number of criminals sentenced at the Assize Courts and Correctional Tribunals in the years stated : —

- ISOO

1892 1893 I 1894

1895

1896

Assize Courts Correctional Tribunals

97 40,275

183 1 129 139 49,731 47,887 j 44,769

109 42,116

110 44,847

The mean number of inmates of the various classes of prisons was : —

— 1 1880 i 1890

1893

1894

1895

1890

Central prisons . Secondary ,, Ileformatories^ .

824 2,881 1,005

860

3,424

905

1,180

3,392

301

1,098

3,408

317

715 3,721

258

761

3,634 249

1 In 1891 the reformatories were classed as charities ; since that year the figures show only the number of children in the correctional branch of the State charity schools annexed lo the Glient central prison.

Pauperism. .

Apart from private charitable associations, which are numerous, public charity is administered under precise regulations. The only public chaiity institutions are refuges, depots cle mendicit{:, or alms-houses, hospitals, and the bureaux de bicn/aisancc, the administrators of which are appointed liy the Communal Councils, while the provinces of the State contribute to maintain certain classes of hospitals, refuges, or alms-houses, au'l asylums. It is the duty of the commune to furnish assistance to its paupers. The charity institutions received in donations and legacies 3,159,056 francs in 1894; 3,676,719 francs in 1895 ; 2,606,232 francs in 1896. Outdoor relief is pro- vided under certain conditions. The statistics of the depSts de mcndicite for the reception of beggars and vagabonds (adults) were as follows : —

Year

Total Mean Entries Foiuilation

,., ' V ! Total Expenditure \ear ^^^^^..^^

Mean Population

1 Expenditure 1

!

1890 17,124 , 4,644

1892 i 6,813 3,564

1893 ' 3,834 ! 4,324

francs ' 1 1,246,004 1894 ' 4,534

915,112 1895 4,055 1,076,411 1896 3,516

4,193 4,529 4,430

francs 1,136,678 1,248,886 1,303,140