Page:Statesman's Year-Book 1899 American Edition.djvu/792

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436

BRAZIL

T. Local Government.

According to the new Constitution each State must be organised under the republican form of government, and must have its administrative, legisla- tive, and judicial authorities distinct and independent. The governors and members of the legislatures must be elective ; the magistrates must not be elective nor removable from office save by judicial sentence. The Federal executive cannot intervene directly in the local government of the States. In cases of obstinate infringement of the Federal Constitution by State authorities the only resource of the central power is an appeal to the Supreme Tribunal of Federal District. The Federal District is administered by a council elected by the citizens of the District, the municipal executive authority being exercised by a Prefect appointed for four years by the President of the Republic. There are in Brazil 892 municipalities and 1,886 parishes.

Area and Population.

The Bureau of Statistics has published returns from the census of 1890, showing the population of the States and the Federal District.

States

Area: sq. miles.

Population, 1890

Males

Females

Total

Per sq. mile

Alagoas

Amazouas

Bahia

Ceara .

22,583

732,460

164,649

40,253

17,312

288,546

177,566

532,708

222,160

443,653

28,(S54

85,453

49,625

116,218

26,634

22,195

91,335

27,436

112,330

7,370

538

250,480 80,921 960,270 394,909 69,813 112,583 212,586 47,196 1,627,461 166,357 219,833 128,209 503,555 133,707 495,673 130,712 459,118 141,980 708,011 150,892 293,657

260,960 66,994

959.532

410,778 66,184

114,989

511,440 147,915 1,919,802 805,687 135,997 227.572

22-1

0-2

11-0

20

7-2

0-7

2-4

0-2

14-3

0-7

15-7

2-8

20-7

2-3

32-9

12-8

9-8

10-3

12-3

42-2

971-5

Espirito iSanto

Goyaz

Maranhao

218,268 j 430,854 45,631 ' 92,827 1 556,638 1 3,184,099 162,098 328,455 237,399 457,232 121,282 249,491 526,669 i 1.030,224

Matto Grosso

Minas Geraes

Paia

Parahyba

Parana

Pernambuco

Piauhy

Rio de Janeiro

Rio Grande do N orte

Rio Grande do 8iil

Santa Catharina

San Paulo

133,902 481,211 137,561 438,337 141,780 676,742

267,609 876,884 268,273 897,455 283,769 1,384,753

Sergipe

Federal District

Aggregate

160,034 228,994

310,926 522,651

3,209,878

7,237,932

7,095,983 14,333,915

4-5

In 1890 the population of Rio de Janeiro was 522,651 ; of Bahia, 174,412 ; of Pernambuco, 111,556 ; Belem, 50,064 ; San Paulo, 64,934 ; Ceara 40,902 ; Maranhao, 29,308 ; Porto Alegre, 52,421 ; Parahyba, 18,645 ; Pelotas, 41,591 ; Ouro Preto, 59,249.

At the census of 1872 there were 3,787,289 whites, 3,801,787 metis, 1,954,452 negroes, and 386,955 Indians. In the northern provinces the Indian element preponderates, while in Pernambuco, Bahia, Rio de Janeiro,