558 FRANCE : — MADAGASCAR
annually to the. State. This system, adopted because the natives are unable to pay taxes, considerably reduces the expenditure of Government on road- making and other public works. The capital, Antananarivo, in the interior, is estimated to have, with suburbs, a population of about 100,000, The principal port is Tamatave, on the east coast, with a population of 5000 to 7000. Majuuga, the chief ])ort on the north-west coast, has about 6,000 inhabitants.
Religion, Education, Justice.
Up to 1895 a large portion of the Hova and of the other tribes in the central districts had been Christianised. The vast majority of professing Christians were connected with churches formed by the London Missionary Society, but Anglicau, Friends', Norwegian, American, Lutheran, and Roman Catholic missions were also at work. The Christian population was esti- mated at 450,000 Protestants, and 50,000 Roman Catholics. Hospitals, college^, and about 1,800 schools, Avith 170,000 children, were connected with the various missions. Since the establishment of French rule, it is alleged that much has been done to break down the influence of Protestant missions in the island. Though decrees have been issued proclaiining religious liberty, the Catholic propaganda has nevertheless been pushed in such a manner that many native Protestants have been constrained to call themselves Catholic. The foim of tenure of the real property of the missions required the adherence of Malagasy Christians of the same profession as the holders of the property, and it is stated that many British mission churches are being lost through the failure of this condition in conserjuence of the terrorism of the Catholics.
On January 27, 1897, a French technical school was opened at Antananarivo, with workshops for iron, tin, painting, pottery, carpentry, tailoring and other work
A code of laws was printed in 1881. Justice is dispensed by French authorities, but there are no statistics available showing crime. Regular courts have been constituted at Antananarivo, Tamatave, and JSLijunga, and their Courts have jurisdiction over British subjects in Sladagascar.
In the local budget for 1898 the revenue was put at 9,437,096 francs, the sources of income being: subvention, 1,800,000 francs; regies, &c., 2,379,200 francs ; customs, &c., 412,200 francs; native taxes, 4,264,426 francs; general taxes and other proceeds, 581,270 francs. The estimated expenditure was calculated to balance the revenue, the largest items being administration, 1,215,378 francs ; militia, 1,823,028 francs ; posts and telegraphs, 690,779 francs. In the French budget of 1899 the sum of 20,185,000 francs was allowed for the administration of Madagascar and dependencies. In 1886 the Malagasy Government borrowed from the Paris Comptoir d'Escompte, at 6 per cent., a sum of 15 million francs, of which 10 million wcnttofpay the indemnity to France. For the conversion of the lialance of this loan, and for public works, &c. , in the island, it was pro- vided in April, 1897, that there should be issued a loan of 30,000,000 francs at 3 ]»er cent. ; 20,000,000 at once and the remainder when voted by the Chambers. The loan lias tlie guarantee of the Republic.
According to the budget of 1898 the colonial troops in Madagascar consist of: infantry, 4,558 ; artillery, 1,367 ; cavalry, 44 ; total, 5,699, including 191