CONSTITUTION AND GOVERNMENT 5^5
Alsace-Lorraine is represented in the Bundesrath by four commissioners [Kommissdrc) without votes, who are nominated by the Statthalter.
The total number of electors to the Reichstag inscribed on the lists was 10,(528,292, or 21 '5 per cent, of the population of 1890, at the general election of 1893, while the number of actual voters was 7,702,265 at the same election, or 72-5 per cent, of the total electors. In 252 districts Protestantism is pre- dominant, and in the remainder Roman Catholicism claims the majority. Of electoral districts with 60,000 of a population and under, there were 4 in 1893 ; between 60,000 and 80,000, 27 ; between 80,000 and 100,000, 72 ; between 100,000 and 120,000, 116 ; between 120,000 and 140,000, 91 ; between 140,000 and 160,000, 41 ; and above 160,000, 46. Of electoral districts with 12,000 voters or less, there were 3 in 1893; 12,000-16,000, 21; 16,000 20,000, 51 ; 20,000-24,000, 114 ; 24,000-28,000, 93; 28,000-32,000, 49 ; above 32,000 voters 66.
Both the Ihmdesrath and the Reichstag meet in annual session, convoked by the Emperor. The Emperor has the right to prorogue and dissolve, after a vote by the Bundesrath, the Reichstag. Without consent of the Reichstag the prorogation may not exceed thirty days ; while in case of disso- lution new elections must take place within sixty days, and a new session nuist open within ninety days. All laws for the Empire must receive the votes of an absolute majority of the Bundesrath and the Reichstag. The liundesrath is presided over by the Reichskanzler, or Chancellor of the Empire, and the President of the Reichstag is elected by the deputies.
The laws of the Empire, passed by the Bundesrath and the Reichstag, to take edcct must be promulgated by the Emperor, and the promulgation, like all other olhcial acts of the Emperor, requires the counter-signature of the Chancellor of the Empire. All the members of the Bundesrath have the right to be present at the deliberations of the Reichstag.
The following are the imperial authorities or Secretaries of State : they do not form a Ministiy or Cabinet, but act independently of each other, under the general supervision of the Chancellor.
1. Chancellor of the Empire. — Prince Hohcnlohe-ScMlUngsfurst, born March 31, 1819 ; Ambassador from the German Empire to France, 1874-85 ; Governor of Alsace-Lorraine, 1885-94 ; Chancellor of the Empire, October 29, 1894.
2. Ministry for Foreign AJairs. — KevY von Biiloio.
3. Imperial Home Office and 'Representative of the Chancellor.' — Dr. Graf von PosadotosT(y-Wehner.
4. Imperial Admiralty. — Herr Tirpitz. Admiral Commanding -in- Chief. — von Knorr.
5. Imperial Ministry of Justice. — Herr Nicberding.
6. Imperial Treasury. — Dr. Freiherr von Thielmann.
And, in addition, the following presidents of imperial bureaus ; —
7. Imperial Post-Officc. — Gen. Lt. z. D. von Podbichki.
8. Imperial Railways. — Dr. Schulz.
9. Imperial Exchequer. — Herr von Jf'olff.
10. Imperial Invalid Fund. — Dr. Rosing.
11. Imperial Bank. — President, Dr. Koch.
12. Imperial Debt Commission. — President, von //ojl'i/iioni.
Acting under the direction of the Chancellor of the Empire, the Bundes- rath represents also a supreme administrative and consultative board, and aa such has twelve standing committees — namely, for army and fortifications ; for naval matters ; tariff, excise, and taxes ; trade and commerce ; railways, posts,