AREA AND POPULATION
(died Sept. 18, 1895). are ^ :— 1. Maiie, born July 15, 1852; luanicd April 29, 1871, to Count Gustaf von Erbach-Scliiinbcr^'. 2. Ludwig, liorn May 24, 1854, coniniandor in tlic Britisli navy ; married to Princess Victoria of Hesse, April 30, 1884 ; offspring, Alice, born February 25, 1885 ; Louise, born July 13,1889; George, born Nov. 6, 1892. 3. Franz Josef, born September 24, 1861 ; married to Princess Anna of Montenegro, May 18, 1897.
The former Landgraves of Hesse had the title of Grand-duke given them by Napoleon L, in 1806, together with a considerable increase of territory. At the Congress of Vienna this grant was confirmed, after some negotiations. The reigning family are not possessed of much private })roperty, but dependent almost entirely upon the grant of the civil list, amounting to 1,331,857 marks, the sum including allowances to the lu'inces.
The Constitution bears date December 17, 1820 ; but was modified in 1856, 1862, and 1872. The legislative power is vested in two Chambers, the first composed of the princes of the reigning family, the heads of a number of noble houses, the Roman Catholic bishop, the chief Protestant superintendent, the Chancellor of the University, two members elected by the noble landowners, and a number (twelve) of life-members, nominated by the Grand-duke ; while the second consists of ten deputies of the eight larger towns, and foity repre- sentatives of the smaller towns and rural districts. Electors (Urwiihler) are Hessians a])ove twenty-five years of age who pay direct taxes. Elections are indirect : the electors nominate the deputy-electors (Wahlmanner), and the latter choose the representatives. The members of the Second Chamber are elected for six years, one-half of the number retiring every three years. The Chambers must be called together at least every three years. Members of both Chambers whose seats are not hereditary, and who do not reside at the seat of the Legislature, receive an allowance of 9s. a day and travelling expenses.
The executive is represented by a ministry of State, divided into three de- partments, namely, of the Interior ; of Justice ; and of Finance. The minister of state is also minister of the Grand-ducal House and Foreign Affairs, and head of the department of the Interior.
For administrative purposes, the Grand-duchy is divided into three provinces, eighteen circles (Kreise), and 993 communes (Gemeinden),
Area and Population.
The area and population were as follows on December 1, 1885, 1890, and December 2, 1895 :—
265,912 307,329 419,642
Upper Hesse (Oberhessen) Rhenish Hesse (Rheinhessen) . , Starkonlmrg
271,524 322,934 444,562
213 9 608-1 381-3
1 Alexander, Prince of Bulgaria, 1879-86, afterwards Count Hartenau, died Nov. IC, 1893, and Henry, married to Princess Beatrice cf Gioat Britain, dial J&nuary 20, 18i.i6.