Page:Statesman's Year-Book 1913.djvu/905

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For fiscal and electoral purposes the pojmlatiou of each commune is divided into agglomerated, scattered, and separated {comptie d j^C'i't) ; the first two constitute the municipal population, and the third consists of garrison, college, prison, and hospital population. Different from this is the distinction between urban and rural population, a commune being urban where the agglomerated population is over 2,000, and rural where under 2,000.


No religion is now recognised by the State.

Under the law promulgated on December 9, 1905, the Churches were separated from the State, the adherents of all creeds were authorised to form associations for public worshij) {associations cuUuclles), and the State, the Departments and the Communes were relieved from payment of salaries. As transitory measures, ecclesiastics over 45 years of age and of over 25 years of service remunerated by the State were entitled to "a pension, and all other ecclesiastics were to receive a grant during a period of from four to eight years. All buildings actually used for public worship and as dwellings in that connection were to be made over, after an inventory Avas taken, to the associations for public worship ; the ]>laces of worship for the total period of the existence of these associations, the ecclesiastical dwellings for a time.

The laM- of January 2, 1907, provides (among other things) that, failing associations cuUuelles, the buildings for public Avorship, together with their furniture, will continue at the disposition of the ministers of religion and the worshippers for the exercise of their religion ; but, in each case, there is required an administrative act drawn up by the prefet as regards buildings belonging to the State or the Departments, and by the maire as regards buildings belonging to the Communes. Forms of the documents necessary under the new law have been supplied by the Government, but the arrange- ment has not been accepted by the clergy, and the religious difficulty (April, 1909) still continues.

The grants paid by the State in the last year of the old regime amounted to 37,528,800 francs (1,501,150/.); those paid by Departments and Communes to 7,555,042 francs (302,200/.). The question of pensions and allowances to be paid under the laAv of December 9, 1905, is not settled, the clergy having refused to submit to that law.

There are 17 archbishops and 67 bishops of the Roman Catholic Church in France, not including Algeria or the colonies. The Protestants of the Augsburg Confession are, in their religious affairs, governed by a General Consistory, while the Reformed Church is under a Council of Administration, the seat of which is at Paris.

The Associations law, passed July 1, 1901, requires religious communi- ties to be authorised by the State, and no monastic association can be authorised without a special law in each particular case. Before the passing of that law there were 910 recognised associations, and 753 not recognised ; the establishments, mostly not recognised, numbered 19,514, and their mem- bers 159,628 (30,136 men and 129,492 women). After the passing of the law, of the 753 associations not recognised, 305 dissolved themselves and 448 asked for authorisation, Avhich was refused by the Chambers to the majority of them.