xxiv Translator's Introduction
unequally, according to the quality and quantity of work performed, the rank occupied by each in the State, and many other factors. The great dififerences which we now see will disappear of themselves, since they result from the private ownership of wealth whose utility is permanent. There will be just enough inequality to serve as a spur to effort and a reward for excellence.
" If, however, the principle oi equality be added to the above idea of the Socialist system. Social- ism becomes Communism. Under this system the amount of wealth given to each citizen is quite independent of the quantity and quality of the work he performs and of any difference in the rank he has attained." *
Some Communists hold that the only just prin- ciple is summed up ia the saying: " From each according to his ability, to each according to his needs." They show a faith in the altruistic pos- sibilities of human nature that one is tempted to characterise as visionary. Perhaps the time may come when the average man will give his best work to the community without regard to the re- ward he is to receive for it, and will be contented when he sees other men, less able and perhaps
��' It should, however, be noted that the word Commun- ism is often used as synonymous with Socialism. Jaurès does not make any distinction, and Marx and Engels called their famous tract The Communist Manifesto, though they did not believe in the equal division of the product among all workers.