attached to you, they will not prove submissive; and, unless submissive, then will be practically useless. If, when the soldiers have become attached to you, punishments are not enforced, they will still be useless.
This is wrongly translated by Capt. Calthrop: “If the troops know the general, but are not affected by his punishments, they are useless.”
43. Therefore soldiers must be treated in the first instance with humanity, but kept under control by means of iron discipline.
文 and 武, according to Ts‘ao Kung, are here equivalent to 仁 and 法 respectively. Compare our two uses of the word “civil.” 晏子 Yen Tzŭ [✝ B. C. 493] said of 司馬穰苴 Ssŭ-ma Jang-chü: 文能附衆武能威敵也 “His civil virtues endeared him to the people; his martial prowess kept his enemies in awe.” Cf. Wu Tzŭ, ch. 4 init.: 夫總文武者軍之將也兼剛柔者兵之事也 “The ideal commander unites culture with a warlike temper; the profession of arms requires a combination of hardness and tenderness.” Again I must find fault with Capt. Calthrop’s translation: “By humane treatment we obtain obedience; authority brings uniformity.”
This is a certain road to victory.
44. If in training soldiers commands are habitually enforced, the army will be well-disciplined; if not, its discipline will be bad.
The T‘ung Tien and Yü Lan read: 令素行以教其人者也令素行則人服令素不行則人不服.
45. If a general shows confidence in his men but always insists on his orders being obeyed,
The original text has 令素行者. 令素 is certainly awkward without 行, but on the other hand it is clear that Tu Mu accepted the T‘ung Tien text, which is identical with ours. He says: “A general ought