Page:The American Indian.djvu/343

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Shoshonean and Nahuatl have been combined; the Piman stock is also considered as a member of this group by Swanton and Kroeber; Natchesan and Muskhogean were grouped together by Swanton;[1] Sapir[2] claims Wishoskan (Wiyot) and Weitspekan (Yurok) to be Algonquian; Kroeber and Dixon[3] group the Shasta, Chimariko, Karok (Quoratean), Pomo (Kulanapan), Esselen and Yuman of California as one stock under the new name of Hokan, and in like manner the Wintun (Copehan), Maidu (Pujunan), Yokuts (Mariposan), Miwok (Moquelumnan) and Costanoan under the name Penutian.[4] All such changes have met with opposition and are accumulating a large amount of controversial literature.

Aside from these specific attacks upon the Powell classification it has been recognized that stocks show a geographical grouping of some kind. Boas designates a southeastern type of language to which also the Iroquois and Caddoan seem to belong, other students have noted a similar grouping of the Shoshonean, Kitunahan, and Kiowan stocks. Boas and later Sapir[5] find similarities between the Tlingit, Haida, and the Athapascan. It is quite probable that the further investigation of these relations will result in the elimination of some stocks, and in any event establish some kind of historical relationship. When this comes to pass, we may find that languages have also a geographical grouping not unlike that for other culture traits. Incidentally, we note that the existence of even such geographical affinities as have been so far established suggest long and permanent residence in one area.

List of Stocks for Fig. 86

1. Athapascan
2. Chiapanecan
3. Chibchan
4. Chinantecan
5. Cunan
6. Huavean
7. Janambrian
8. Jicaquean
9. Jincan
10. Laguneros

11. Lencan
12. Mayan
13. Matagalpan
14. Mosquitoan
15. Nahuatlan
16. Olivean
17. Otomian
18. Pakawan
19. Payon
20. Subtiaban

21. Tamaulipecan
22. Tarascan
23. Tequistlatecan
24. Totonacan
25. Ulvan
26. Waïcurian
27. Yuman
28. Zapotecan
29. Zoquean

  1. Swanton, 1915. I.
  2. Sapir, 1913. I.
  3. Dixon and Kroeber, 1913. I.
  4. Dixon and Kroeber, 1913. I.
  5. Sapir, 1915. I.