devoted to philosophy, science, politics, literature, and the general interests of civilization, especially American civilization." After one volume of this series the Review was abandoned for eight years. In 1873 the indefatigable editor renewed it for the purpose, as he said, of showing that he was still loyal to the church; and he again protested this loyalty when in 1875 he brought the venture to a final close. While Brownson was erratic in literary as well as in other judgments, he was an original thinker and a forceful personality, and the reviews of secular books in his quarterly are of constant value to the student of American literature and American thought.
The New Englander, founded at Yale College in 1843 to support evangelical Christianity though not avowedly a theological journal, passed through a variety of changes, and in time found itself devoted chiefly to history and economics. In 1885 it was known as The New Englander and Yale Review, and in 1892 it became The Yale Review. In 1896 it relinquished history to the newly founded American Historical Review, and when in 1911 the American Economic Association made plans for a journal of its own the occupation of the Review was gone. It then passed under the editorship of Wilbur L. Cross, who has continued it as a general literary magazine and review, printing poems, descriptive essays, and timely articles of moderate length, as well as more serious dissertations. For a time The New Englander and Yale Review tried the experiment of monthly and then of bi-monthly issue, but for the great part of its career the journal has been, as it is now, published quarterly.
The Christian Examiner (dating from 1824), a bi-monthly which bore something the same relation to the faculty of Harvard that The New Englander did to that of Yale, continued to 1869. It contained a large number of articles on purely literary topics, some of them fully the equal of those in the North American.
In connection with these semi-theological periodicals of New England may be conveniently mentioned The Princeton Review, which expressed the devotion of the faculty of Princeton College to conservative Presbyterianism, and was frankly a religious journal. It always contained, however, some articles of general literary interest. During its career from 1825 to 1884 it under-