THE PROVINCE OF SHANTUNG
By Mr. C. F. Hogg.
Shantung ("East of the Hills," as Shansi is "West of the Hills") lies to the south-east of the metropolitan province, Chihli, and to the north of Kiangsu; a part of Honan divides these and completes the landward boundaries of the province. Shantung, as to a considerable portion of its area, is a promontory, the northern coast of which is the southern littoral of the Gulf of Chihli, or Pe-Chihli, as it is sometimes called, the added syllable "Pe" signifying "North."
The area of Shantung is stated at 53,762 square miles (English), or nearly twice that of Ireland, and considerably more than that of England. Its surface may be described, roughly, as flat as to one half, and hilly as to the other. The southern and eastern parts are hilly, and in places mountainous; the remainder is a plain. The rugged heights of the eastern extremity of the promontory present a forbidding appearance from the sea, from which the mountains, rich in granite, seem to rise sheer. Only towards this extremity are natural harbours to be found. Westward, north and south of the promontory, the shoal water makes access to the land difficult for boats of any burden. There are, however, a few places where native junks find shelter, ships of tonnage not greatly differing from those with which Columbus discovered America. The principal, if not the only exceptions, are Chefoo, where the Treaty of 1876 was signed by Sir Thomas Wade