Five miles of frontage on the right and left banks of the Peiho river are owned and governed by foreign powers. As a result of the Treaty of 1860, the British and French had concessions allotted to them. The Japanese, after the war of 1895, acquired the same right; and now, since 1900, there are in addition concessions belonging to Germany, Russia, Austria, and Belgium. Jehho or Jehol lies outside the Great Wall, and is chiefly interesting to foreigners because Lord Macartney's embassy of 1793 was there received in audience by the Emperor Kien-lung; and to Jehho the Emperor Hien-fung fled before the advance of the Allies on Peking in 1860. Tungchow lies 12 miles east of Peking, and is now connected with the capital by a branch line of railway. Its former glory has departed. The imperial grain fleets which crowded the river and unloaded their harvest of tribute rice from the southern provinces at this northern terminus of the Grand Canal arrive here no more. Coasting steamships and railways have displaced the old junk traffic. The granaries of Tungchow are empty—its importance now is as an educational centre. Here are the splendid group of college buildings and professors' residences which constitute the North China Union College of the American Board Mission, with the Rev. Dr. Sheffield as Principal. Chengtingfu on the Chinghan railway, the residence of a Roman Catholic bishop, held its gates closed against the Boxer rebels, and sheltered within its walls a few Protestant missionaries who would otherwise have been massacred in 1900.
Shanhaikwan, a strongly fortified town at the eastern extremity of the Great Wall, has been occupied by detachments of foreign troops since the Boxer year, and has also a small European community of railway employés.
Hochien Fu was the scene of the recent military manœuvres of the Northern Army under H.E. Yüan Shih-kai, which so greatly impressed the foreign attaches and newspaper correspondents who were invited to witness it.
The population of the province is stated as nearly