(Mr. A. Little in The Far East, p. 136, suggests 50 per cent, but this is far too high an estimate.)
Les Lolos, by Paul Vial, Shanghai, 1898, gives informa- tion about this particular tribe.
Language. — KwANGSi is roughly divided into two language areas by a line drawn diagonally a little north of Nanning to a little south of Pingloh. North of this line is Mandarin-speaking, south of it Cantonese with kindred dialects. Colonies of Hakkas also exist. The aboriginal tribes speak their own (non - Chinese ?) languages as mentioned above.
Ancient History. — KwANGSi, along with the south generally, was originally inhabited by uncivilised tribes, the descendants of whom possibly are found to-day in the Miaotse, etc., where intermarriage with the Chinese has not obliterated the chief differences. The region was then known as "Yueh." The great emperor Shih Hwangti in 216 B.C. annexed and partly subdued Yueh, designating it the province of Kweilin. About 206 B.C. Chao-to, one of his celebrated generals, raised the standard of revolt and rapidly extended his authority over all Southern Yueh. Chao-to's grandson, who succeeded him, failed to keep possession, and the Hans later regained the ascendency. Han Wu-ti in 111 B.C. again had to send large forces to suppress a rebellion (vide The Far East, p. 147).
From that day to this KwANGSi has been in the balance, oscillating between successful and abortive rebellions. Whenever the ruling powers in the north have been weak, KwANGSi has been left alone; when strong, Kwangsi has suffered, and nursing her wrongs, has waited for the next favourable opportunity to throw off the yoke. Until quite recent times the relation to the central Government has been more that of a dependency than a province, the existence of 34 hereditary Tu-sze governing counties plainly revealing this.
In the reign of Cheng Hua, a.d. 1465, of the Ming dynasty, a bridge of boats was constructed at Wuchow across the Cassia river, of which, however, no trace remains