of China, but these were obliged to remain in what was called the Ultra-Ganges Mission; so that, "in the face of almost every discouragement short of violent expulsion from the country, he had accomplished, almost single-handed, three great tasks—the Chinese Dictionary, the establishment of the Anglo-Chinese College at Malacca, and the translation of the Holy Scriptures into the book-language of China." Twice his font of type was destroyed and his press had to be removed to Malacca, and in addition to this he had to face the adverse edicts of the Chinese Government, forbidding the circulation of foreign books and preaching of the foreign doctrine. The friendly attitude of some of the American merchants, however, was a silver lining to the dark cloud. Through one of these, Mr. Olyphant, some of the American Societies became deeply interested in China, Mr. Olyphant subsequently placing his ships at the disposal of these Societies for the free transport of their missionaries to the field.
The L.M.S., while seeking to enter China from the south, also commenced an effort to reach the tribes of Mongolia on the north, Messrs. Stallybrass and Swan commencing their work on the borders of Lake Baikal in 1818. This Mission was closed by the Holy Synod of the Eussian Government in 1840, but not before the greater part of the Bible had been translated into Mongolian.
The remarkable journeys of Gutzlaff also fall within the period of Morrison's life. During the five years 1831-35, Karl Gutzlaff, connected with the Netherlands Missionary Society, made seven journeys along the coasts of Siam and China, reaching Tientsin in 1831. The greatest interest was aroused both in England and America, among missionary, commercial, and political circles, and in 1835 the L.M.S. requested Dr. Medhurst to attempt similar journeys. Dr. Medhurst did so, and reached Shantung in company with the Kev. E. Stevens. Although events proved that China was not yet as accessible as had been anticipated, Gutzlaff was nevertheless used of God to kindle a flame of enthusiasm in the hearts of not a few. Indirectly his zeal