Page:The Hessians and the other German auxiliaries of Great Britain in the revolutionary war.djvu/326

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(From the library of his Serene Highness the Prince of Waldeck.)

(11.) Fragment of a diary of the Waldeck Regiment, April 11, 1780, to July, 1782.

(From the archives at Marburg.)

(12.) Berichte Sr Excellentz des Herrn General Lieutenant von Knyphausen au Serenissimum.

(Of the above-named MSS. I have copies. I have also consulted a collection of papers concerning Regt. von Mirbach in the library at Cassel, and sundry documents in the archives at Marburg.)



The Landgrave of Hesse-Cassel sent fifteen of his regiments to America. Each of these regiments was composed of 650 officers and men, in five companies. This was less than the normal strength of a Hessian regiment. Fourteen of the fifteen regiments had given up one company of grenadiers each, and these fourteen companies, with two more from the Landgrave's bodyguard, were formed into four battalions of grenadiers, with a strength of 524 officers and men for each battalion. A corps of chasseurs (Jägers), originally consisting of two companies, accompanied the army. It was augmented in 1777 to a nominal strength of 1067 officers and men, but I think it never much exceeded six or seven hundred effective. There were three companies of artillery, together numbering 588 (Kapp's Soldatenhandel, 1. ed., p. 280). Thus the Hessian force (Cassel) was composed of 15 regiments of infantry, 4 battalions of grenadiers, 1 corps of chasseurs, and 3 companies of artillery. There was no cavalry, but a few of the chasseurs were mounted.

A Hessian regiment was usually named after its “Chef.” This “Chef” was sometimes the colonel of the regiment, but more frequently a prince or superior officer. As the “Chefs” were frequently changed or transferred, it is often difficult to identify a regiment. The battalions of grenadiers in America were named after their lieutenant-colonels. The following list of the regiments and battalions that served in America, and of the changes in their names, is taken partly from a list appended to the copy of Wiederhold's diary, in the library at Cassel. I believe it to be generally correct. I have added the names of the principal battles and expeditions in which the various regiments and battalions were engaged. (Those regiments which came over with von Heister are marked “I. div.” Those which came with von Knyphausen are marked “II. div.”)