Page:The Outline of History Vol 1.djvu/593

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XXX

THE BEGINNINGS, THE RISE, AND THE DIVISIONS OF CHRISTIANITY

§ 1. Judea at the Christian Era. § 2. The Teachings of Jesus of Nazareth. § 3. The New Universal Religions. § 4. The Crucifixion of Jesus of Nazareth. § 5. Doctrines added to the Teachings of Jesus. § 6. The Struggles and Persecutions of Christianity. § 7. Constantine the Great. § 8. The Establishment of Official Christianity. § 9. The Map of Europe, A.D. 500. § 10. The Salvation of Learning by Christianity.
 

§ 1

BEFORE we can understand the qualities of Christianity, which must now play a large part in our history, and which opened men's eyes to fresh aspects of the possibility of a unified world, we must go back some centuries and tell of the condition of affairs in Palestine and Syria, in which countries Christianity arose. We have already told in Chapter XXI the main facts about the origin of the Jewish nation and tradition, about the Diaspora, about the fundamentally scattered nature of Jewry even from the beginning, and the gradual development of the idea of one just God ruling the earth and bound by a special promise to preserve and bring to honour the Jewish people. The Jewish idea was and is a curious combination of theological breadth and an intense racial patriotism. The Jews looked for a special saviour, a Messiah, who was to redeem mankind by the agreeable process of restoring the fabulous glories of David and Solomon, and bringing the whole world at last under the benevolent but firm Jewish heel. As the political power of the Semitic peoples declined, as Carthage followed Tyre into the darkness and Spain

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