and brought him near to Catholicism. He entered into close relationships with Bishop Strossmayer and the Jesuit Pierling. Among Catholic thinkers, Bossuet, with his philosophy of ecclesiastical history, became dear to Solov'ev. The religious censorship now forbade him to publish in Russia any writings upon religious topics, and his chief works were therefore produced abroad. The first volume of the History and Future of Theocracy, containing Foreword, Introduction, and Philosophy of Biblical History, was published in Russian at Agram in 1887; La Russie et l’église universelle appeared at Paris in 1889.
During the nineties, Solov'ev devoted his attention to ethical and political questions. His leading ethical treatise was entitled Justification of the Good, Moral Philosophy (1897, 2nd edition 1898).
At this time he planned with his brother a translation of Plato; he translated Kant's Prolegomena; and he wrote a detailed biography of Mohammed (1896)—the Mohammedan religious world had ever allured him.
Solov'ev paid frequent visits to Europe. In 1899 he revisited Egypt, and wished to go to Palestine, but lacked funds for the purpose. Returning home in debilitated health, he died next year (August 12th) on the estate of one of his professorial friends, Prince Trubeckoi.
All his biographers are agreed in deploring Solov'ev's carelessness about his health. His meals were ill selected and irregular; in later years he became a vegetarian, though he ate fish occasionally; when ill he often refused to follow his doctor's advice. He would work far on into the night; lived quite alone for months without a servant; whilst he would visit his friends unexpectedly, this too, perhaps, at a very late hour, in order to discuss vital questions with them. It cannot be said that he shunned society. He was restless, highly strung, of irregular habits, and might be described as a secular monk and ascetic.
A DETAILED study of Solov'ev would have to follow closely the philosopher's course of internal development, but in a sketch, which is all that can be given here, I must content myself with presenting the leading important ideas of Solov'ev's philosophy and with making no more than brief allusion to the chief phases of his development.