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134

THE LIFE OF TOLSTOY

as well as human relations. Owing to this critical side the novel was never published in full in Russia. The complete text was brought out in England by Tchertkoff who, owing to the Dukhobor movement, was banished from Russia. He started "The Free Age Press" publications in England, and for eight years issued all the first editions of Tolstoy's work of that period.

The connection between Tolstoy and the Dukhobors was maintained, and they regularly informed him as to the condition of their life in their communities.

The Dukhobor movement had a world-wide importance, and Tolstoy's participation in it raised it yet higher in public estimation. News of it was published in all civilised countries, and the example of Christian self-denial found imitators in France, England, Holland, Germany, and Switzerland, where more or less numerous groups were formed with the aim of realising in life the true teachings of Jesus. In many countries military service was refused, in spite of severe punishment. Communities were organised and agricultural colonies were started; a series of periodicals was published devoted to the investigation of Christian questions; and the vegetarian movement also increased.

At that time Tolstoy wrote quite a number of