the existing Treaty for the suppression of Slave Trade." We have seen that no measure hitherto adopted has succeeded in even checking the East Coast Slave Trade, and we think that the time has come when our Government should bestir itself in this matter, and call upon the Sultan of Zanzibar to enter into such other engagements as may be deemed requisite for the complete suppression of the traffic, a result which the experience of twenty-two years has shown the existing Treaty to be utterly inadequate to effect.
Extracts from Dr. Livingstone's Report on the East African Slave Trade, dated East Africa, Lat. 11° 18' S., Long. 37° 10' E., June 11, 1866.
"I devoted part of the time of my detention at the Island of Zanzibar to a careful and earnest study of our political relations with the Sultan, and to a minute investigation of the causes which have prevented those parts of Eastern Africa, subject to Arab influences, from reaping the same advantages, by the policy of Her Majesty's Government against the Slave Trade, which have been realized in large portions of Western Africa inhabited by less promising races of people.
"The reasons assigned for the continuance of this very unsatisfactory state of affairs derive their force and speciousness partly from political considerations, and partly from forebodings of the evils involved in change, though that change might be for the better. A bright hope too, that, by the slow and steady influence of trade and imported civilization, the Arabs may be led to change their ways, gilds the whole subject.
"Among the political considerations are specified, that these Northern Arab slave-traders are lawless pirates, whom the Sultan, however willing, cannot coerce. His power in the Island of Zanzibar is very limited, and on the coast line of the adjacent continent he possesses but a mere shadow of power. In fact, to the Arabs he represents that leader only who first guided them down the East coast for conquest. They acknowledge him as their Chief (Syed), but not their Sultan; and since the present occupant of the Chieftainship has been separated from those possessions in Asia whence his father, the old Imaum of Muscat, drew all his military power, Syed Majid, the son, can muster no force to control either the Zanzibar or the Northern Arab slave-traders. His utter powerlessness to with-