Page:Totem and Taboo (1919).djvu/229

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have been formed on the model of chicken life when we find him saying to a woman neighbor: “I am going to marry you and your sister and my three cousins and the cook; no, instead of the cook I’ll marry my mother.”

We shall be able to complete our consideration of these observations later; at present we will only point out two traits that show a valuable correspondence with totemism: the complete identification with the totem animal,[1] and the ambivalent affective attitude towards it. In view of these observations we consider ourselves justified in substituting the father for the totem animal in the male’s formula of totemism. We then notice that in doing so we have taken no new or especially daring step. For primitive men say it themselves and, as far as the totemic system is still in effect to-day, the totem is called ancestor and primal father. We have only taken literally an expression of these races which ethnologists did not know what to do with and were therefore inclined to put it into the background. Psychoanalysis warns us, on the contrary, to emphasize this very point and to connect it with the attempt to explain totemism.[2]

  1. Frazer finds that the essence of totemism is in this identification: “Totemism is an identification of a man with his totem.” “Totemism and Exogamy,” IV, p. 5.
  2. I am indebted to Otto Rank for the report of a case of dog phobia in an intelligent young man whose explanation of how he