FM 3-18 wuduuwd at the strategic lem, but all PSYOP units reinforce the strategic message. Operational-level PSYOP, employed with uther IO elements. seek to cnnviucu adversary deoisimimzknrs that taking certain actions is in their best interest. PSYOP personnel iutegmw PSYOP actions, PSYOP enabling actions, and targeting restrictions into the targeting process, These actions and restrictions facilitate mission accomplishment, minimize adverse effects, and attack the adversaryk will to continue. The actions may be based on political, cultural, ethnic, and religious considerations. They may also have historical, economic, military, ur ideological origins. Rcgioiuxlr nxtiemul, demographic, or geographic ihutms are also taken inte account. 24.3, As with offensive IO, PSYOP transmit information that may degrade the morale and efiixctiveness of adversary wmmanders and units, As delim- sive IO, PSYOP can be used to deny adversary euzplnitatiun nf the target popula- tion. PSYOP missions inelude· • Projecting a favorable image uf US actions by informing friendly, neutral, and hostile audiences in both denied areas and friendly areas. • Bypassing censorship, illiteracy, or interrupted cumrnunieatiuns systems to convey messages tn target audiences. » Targeting udvorsanes to- · Delzrade their morale. • Reduce their will to resist. · Discourage them from employing certain kinds nf weapons, such as weapons of mass destruction (WMD). - Olfur alternatives to mntinued manic:. • Sustaining the morale of resistance lighters. • Exploiting ethnic, cultural, religious, cr economic differences. • Influencing local suppurt for insurgents, • Providing intelligence regarding nrlnmilitary factors for contingencies, • Dlsseminating rules of interaction and cultural information to US forces under the auspices of the unit internal information program. 244, Considerations during PSYOP planning include- • Legal constraints. • PSYOP is prohibited from targeting audiences within the United States, its territories, or its possessions. · PSYOP must follow international law, treaties, and US law, espe- cially when ounducted offensively. · For additional details, see the Smith-Mundt Act of 1948; Pres- idential Decision Directive 68. • Approval authority, PSYOP pmduet appmval autlmrity can ba no lower than the commander, joint task force (CJTF). There me two lev- els 0i`PSYO1’ product approval: · Objectives, themes, and messages. The President, combatant commander, JFC, or appropriate ambassador approves objectives, themes, and messages. · Products. Commanders subordinate to CJ'l'Fs may modify ap- proved products within guidelines issued by the higher headquar- ters to better target local audiences. 2-4
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