116 STAT. 1942 PUBLIC LAW 107-279—NOV. 5, 2002 (A) to gain fundamental knowledge or understanding of phenomena and observable facts, without specific application toward processes or products; and (B) for the advancement of knowledge in the field of education. (4) BOARD. —The term "Board" means the National Board for Education Sciences established under section 116. (5) BUREAU. — The term "Bureau" means the Bureau of Indian Affairs. (6) COMPREHENSIVE CENTER. —The term "comprehensive center" means an entity established under section 203 of the Educational Technical Assistance Act of 2002. (7) DEPARTMENT. —The term "Department" means the Department of Education. (8) DEVELOPMENT.— The term "development" means the systematic use of knowledge or understanding gained from the findings of scientifically valid research and the shaping of that knowledge or understanding into products or processes that can be applied and evaluated and may prove useful in areas such as the preparation of materials and new methods of instruction and practices in teaching, that lead to the improvement of the academic skills of students, and that are replicable in different educational settings. (9) DIRECTOR.— The term "Director" means the Director of the Institute of Education Sciences. (10) DISSEMINATION. — The term "dissemination" means the communication and transfer of the results of scientifically valid research, statistics, and evaluations, in forms that are understandable, easily accessible, and usable, or adaptable for use in, the improvement of educational practice by teachers, administrators, librarians, other practitioners, researchers, parents, policymakers, and the public, through technical assistance, publications, electronic transfer, and other means. (11) EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATOR.—The term "early childhood educator" means a person providing, or employed by a provider of, nonresidential child care services (including centerbased, family-based, and in-home child care services) that is legally operating under State law, and that complies with applicable State and local requirements for the provision of child care services to children at any age from birth through the age at which a child may start kindergarten in that State. (12) FIELD-INITIATED RESEARCH.—The term "field-initiated research" means basic research or applied research in which specific questions and methods of study are generated by investigators (including teachers and other practitioners) and that conforms to standards of scientifically valid research. (13) HISTORICALLY BLACK COLLEGE OR UNIVERSITY.—The term "historically Black college or university" means a part B institution as defined in section 322 of the Higher Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 1061). (14) INSTITUTE.— The term "Institute" means the Institute of Education Sciences established under section 111. (15) INSTITUTION OF HIGHER EDUCATION.— The term "institution of higher education" has the meaning given that term in section 101(a) of the Higher Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 1001(a)).