PUBLIC LAWS-CH. 2-NOV. 4, 1939 [CHAPTER 21 JOINT RESOLUTION November 4, 139 lH. J. RBP .3061 To preserve the neutrality and the peace of the United States and to secure the [Pub. Res. , No. 64] safety of its citizens and their interests. Neutrality Act of 1939. 22U.S.C., Supp. V, H246J-2456 -19. Preamble. Proclamation of a state of war between foreign states. Revocation. Whereas the United States, desiring to preserve its neutrality in wars between foreign states and desiring also to avoid involvement therein, voluntarily imposes upon its nationals by domestic legislation the restrictions set out in this joint resolution; and Whereas by so doing the United States waives none of its own rights or privileges, or those of any of its nationals, under interna- tional law, and expressly reserves all the rights and privileges to which it and its nationals are entitled under the law of nations; and Whereas the United States hereby expressly reserves the right to repeal, change or modify this joint resolution or any other domestic legislation in the interests of the peace, security or welfare of the United States and its people: Therefore be it Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, PROCLAMATION OF A STATE OF WAR BETWEEN FOREIGN STATES SEcrroN 1. (a) That whenever the President, or the Congress by concurrent resolution, shall find that there exists a state of war between foreign states, and that it is necessary to promote the secu- rity or preserve the peace of the United States or to protect the lives of citizens of the United States, the President shall issue a procla- mation naming the states involved; and he shall, from time to time, by proclamation, name other states as and when they may become involved in the war. (b) Whenever the state of war which shall have caused the Presi- dent to issue any proclamation under the authority of this section shall have ceased to exist with respect to any state named in such proclamation, he shall revoke such proclamation with respect to such state. COMMERCE WITH STATES ENGAGED IN ARMED CONFLICT Prohibite on oe des- S. EO 2. (a) Whenever the President shall have issued a proclama- can vessels. tion under the authority of section 1 (a) it shall thereafter be unlaw- t. p.86. ful for any American vessel to carry any passengers or any articles or materials to any state named in such proclamation. Penalty. (b) Whoever shall violate any of the provisions of subsection (a) of this section or of any regulations issued thereunder shall, upon conviction thereof, be fined not more than $50,000 or imprisoned for not more than five years, or both. Should the violation be by a corporation, organization, or association, each officer or director thereof participating in the violation shall be liable to the penalty herein prescribed. xportetc.,ofrti (C) Whenever the President shall have issued a proclamation ception. ' under the authority of section 1 (a) it shall thereafter be unlawful to export or transport, or attempt to export or transport, or cause to be exported or transported, from the United States to any state named in such proclamation, any articles or materials (except copy- TransterofUtlet. righted articles or materials) until all right, title, and interest therein shall have been transferred to some foreign government, agency, Billoflading. institution, association, partnership, corporation, or national. Issu- ance of a bill of lading under which title to the articles or materials to be exported or transported passes to a foreign purchaser uncon- ditionally upon the delivery of such articles or materials to a carrier, 4 [54 STAT.