56 § 853. Art. 53. Court to announce action A court-martial shall announce its findings and sentence to the parties as soon as determined. §854. Art. 54. Record of trial (a) Each general court-martial shall keep a separate record of the proceedings of the trial of each case brought before it, and the record shall be authenticated by the signatures of the president and the law officer. If the record cannot be authenticated by either the president or the law officer, by reason of his death, disability, or absence, it shall be signed by a member in lieu of him. If both the president and the law officer are unavailable for any of those reasons, the record shall be authenticated by two members. (b) Each special and summary court-martial shall keep a separate record of the proceedings in each case, and the record shall contain the matter and shall be authenticated in the manner required by such regulations as the President may prescribe. (c) A copy of the record of the proceedings of each general and special court-martial shall be given to the accused as soon as it is authenticated. SUBCHAPTER VIII.—SENTENCES Sec. Art.
8f>5. 85B. 857. 858.
55. 56. 57. 58.
Cruel and iinnsnal punishments prohibited. Maximum limits. Effective date of sentences. Execution of confinement.
§ 855. A r t. 55. Cruel and u n u s u a l punishments prohibited Punishment by flogging, or by branding, marking, or tattooing on the body, or any other cruel or unusual punishment, may not be adjudged by any court-martial or inflicted upon any person subject to this chapter. The use of irons, single or double, except for the purpose of safe custody, is prohibited. § 856. A r t. 56. Maximum limits The punishment which a court-martial may direct for an offense may not exceed such limits as the President may prescribe for that offense. § 857. A r t. 57. Effective date of sentences (a) Whenever a sentence of a court-martial as lawfully adjudged and approved includes a forfeiture of pay or allowances in addition to confinement not suspended, the forfeiture may apply to pay or allowances becoming due on or after the date the sentence is approved by the convening authority. No forfeiture may extend to any pay or allowances accrued before that date. (b) Any period of confinement included in a sentence of a courtmartial begins to run from the date the sentence is adjudged by the court-martial, but periods during which the sentence to confinement is suspended shall be excluded in computing the service of the term of confinement. (c) All other sentences of courts-martial are effective on the date ordered executed.