POLITICAL HISTORY Dukes of Norfolk, Earls of Arundel and Surrey, were again great men in both Surrey and Sussex. The great local influence of the earldom may be said to have ceased with the death of Thomas de Arundel in 1415. During the Wars of the Roses, the de Clare inheritance being permanently broken up and the de Warenne inheritance being also divided, there was no one great baron of overwhelming importance in the county. The succession of earls after the last de Warenne till Elizabeth's reign was as follows : Richard II. of Arundel succeeded lure matris as Earl of Surrey and Warenne in August, 1361 ; died in 1376. Richard III., his son, was beheaded by King Richard II. in 1397. Thomas Holland, nephew to the king and to the late earl, whose sister's son he was, was made Duke of Surrey in 1397, was deprived in 1399, and beheaded in 1400. Thomas de Arundel, son of the earl beheaded in 1397, was restored in 1399, and died in 1415. John Mowbray, great-grandson of a daughter of Richard III. of Arundel, was created Earl of Surrey and Warenne in 1451. He succeeded his father as Duke of Norfolk in 1461, and died in 1476. Richard, son of King Edward IV., having married Norfolk's only child, Anne, was created Earl of Warenne (perhaps of Surrey) in 1478, and was murdered in the Tower in 1483. Thomas Howard I., son to John Howard Duke of Norfolk, and great- grandson to a daughter of Richard III. of Arundel, was created Earl of Surrey in June, 1483. He was attainted after Bosworth, where his father was killed. He was restored as Earl of Surrey in 1489. After winning Flodden Field he was created Duke of Norfolk, and resigned the earldom of Surrey in favour of his son Thomas Howard II. in 1514. Thomas II., narrowly escaping death at the hands of Henry VIII., was attainted in 1547, restored in 1553, and died in 1554. His son Henry Howard, executed in 1547, was only Earl of Surrey by courtesy. Thomas Howard III., grandson to Thomas Howard II., succeeded as Duke of Norfolk and Earl of Surrey in 1554, and was beheaded in 1572. His son succeeded only as Earl of Arundel iure matris, and died a prisoner in the Tower. James I. restored his son as Earl of Arundel and Surrey. Charles I. created him Earl of Norfolk ; and his grandson was restored as Duke of Norfolk by Charles II. in 1660. The titles of Duke of Norfolk and Earl of Surrey have continued ever since united in his representatives. The influence of the two great houses in the county left its mark upon the parliamentary arrangements which were beginning to be made when the names of de Clare and de Warenne were formidable, and when Blechingley and Reigate Castles were the capitals or citadels of poten- tates, possible rivals to each other or to the king. Hence the represen- tation of these two places in Parliament from Edward I.'s reign till 1832 and 1867 respectively. The county town, Guildford, was of course repre- sented as all other county towns were. Guildford was the ancient county town so far as we know. In 1259 certainly a complaint was made to the king of the inconvenience of the justices sitting in the County Court 349
Page:VCH Surrey 1.djvu/417
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