Page:Vactican as a World Power.djvu/345

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simple, middle-class officialdom now arose in the Church, and gradu- ally freed itself from dependence on the absolute state. Because re- ligion was its innermost concern, it automatically began to understand anew that over and above national boundaries there was in progress a struggle of the Church and die Papacy for influence in the world*

Napoleon continued to serve the cause of Rome by harassing the Pope. After he had caused himself to be elected hereditary Emperor of the French in 1804, ^ e ^ so invited Pope Pius VII to Paris for his anointing and consecration. He had remembered that Pope Zach- arias had come to the land of the Franks when Pepin was crowned. For safety's sake he let Cardinal Consalvi know that if His Holiness refused to come he would be deeply offended, that much harm would result and that, on the other hand, if the Pope did as he was bidden great advantages would accrue to the Papal States. Every excuse would be looked upon as a mere protest, Napoleon added. Rome was frightened. Just a few days before Cardinal Fesch had reported the horrible murder of the Duke of Enghien; and the Pope had burst into tears for the victim's sake, and also for the sake of the real mur- derer, whom he was now expected to crown. He postponed sending congratulations to the newly elected Emperor until the transformation of the Republic into a Monarchy had formally taken place. During the Roman discussions of whether the Pope was to go or not, the de- termining factor was a petition to Napoleon to give freer rein to the Church in France. Consalvi wrote to Paris that only a religious rea- son and definite assurances by the Emperor could provide a suitable motive for the Papal journey. The Curia raised more objections than could be listed. If Bonaparte is crowned, will not the Revolu- tion be crowned also? Will the other courts not avenge themselves on Rome for such an act? Must one not be prepared to expect further violence and deceit from this man? What would be the effect of a defeat such as Pius VI had experienced? And again does not the good of religion demand that the master of Europe and the power of France be won over to the side of the Church? Finally the number in favour of the Pope going to Paris formed a majority in the Sacred College. When Rome declared that a letter of invitation was ex- pected, the Emperor answered with a repulsively slippery missive, the