Page:Welsh Medieval Law.djvu/431

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      Buallt, an ancient Welsh gwlad or patria, now represented by the Hundred of Builth in the county of Breconshire. Buallt, however, was quite distinct from Brycheiniog. Buallt and the adjoining patria of Gwrtheyrnion were ruled over by Pascent, son of Vortigern, in the fifth century, these two gwlads having been bestowed on him by Ambrosius Aurelianus. The line of Pascent continued to rule after him for centuries, its representative in the time of the author of his genealogy in the Historia Brittonum being Fernmail.[1] It is a striking fact that Buallt and Gwrtheyrnion go together in the present text. See Cyrchell and Deheubarth.

      camlwrw, a fine, sometimes doubled, of three kine for various offences, paid directly to the king. In certain cases, however, a portion of the camlwrw was a perquisite of others, whilst in the case of a llan, the whole of the camlwrw appears to have been divided between the abbot and lay proprietors. See dirwy.

      canghellor [Lat. cancellarius], a royal officer, appointed over a district called his canghellorship, with special juris- diction among the king's taeogs. It is carefully stated that he is not to be a pencenedl or chief of kindred, by which is probably intended that his authority is directly from the king, and does not in any way lie in his own blood origin. He is to hold the pleas of the king, and together with the maer is to keep the king's waste. It is noteworthy that our earliest MS. of the laws, Peniarth MS. 28 in Latin, differs from all subsequent texts in calling him kymellaur from a Latin original compellarius.

      cantrev [lit. a hundred trevs], a hundred, the largest division of a gwlad or patria. The cantrevs varied considerably in extent ; and it may be that originally they were one and all separate gwlads, as some of them certainly were. If, as is possible, trev once represented a personal entity (being an equation of the Latin tribus), cantrev at first may have stood for an organized group of kinsmen wandering over some ill-defined territory, which subsequently came to be strictly defined and to bear the name of cantrev in a territorial sense. This, however, in the case of Wales depends on the antiquity of the division, for it may be a comparatively late importation from England or the Continent. The cantrev was divided into cymwds, which were always strictly territorial divisions, marked off from one another by a well-defined boundary, such as a river or stream. The rigid definition of cantrev, comprising two cymwds, &c., as

  1. Mommsen's Chronica Minora III. 192.