Paper and Its Uses/Syllabus
CITY AND GUILDS OF LONDON INSTITUTE EXAMINATIONS
TYPOGRAPHY AND LITHOGRAPHY
Extracts from Syllabus as regards Paper
Press and Machine.—Grade I
Sizes, and subdivisions of papers and cards; number of sheets in quires and reams; easy questions on the various grades of paper.
Hand- and machine-made; qualities and weights, equivalent weights; sizes and subdivisions of printings, writings, and account book papers; sizes and subdivisions of cards.
Press and Machine. Grade II
Various sizes, weights, and subdivisions; differences between machine- and hand-made; coated and super-calendered; effect of heat and damp upon; avoidance of waste from dirt and careless handling.
Papers and Boards.—The manufacture of paper. The paper-making machine; fibre-yielding material; warehouse tests for the various celluloses; soft-, half-, tub-, and engine-sizing; china clay, its uses and how to determine proportion.
Various classes of paper (hand-made, mould-made, and machine-made). Printings, coated papers, writings, banks and loans, plate, drawings, account books, cover papers, blottings, vegetable parchments, imitation parchments, manillas, "safety" cheque papers, wrapping papers, gummed papers.
Judging Papers.—How to judge the quality of various classes of papers and their suitability for the purposes to which they are to be put. Bulk, handling, and "look-through," strength, tear (straight and across), length of fibre. British and foreign makes and how to detect. The right and wrong sides.
Defects in Paper.—Cockling, and creasing, stretching, lifting, fluffing, the mill edge, spots, air-bubbles, foreign substances, electricity in paper.
Technical terms used by papermakers and merchants. Insides, outsides, retree, job, mill job, overmake, etc.
Sizes and Weights of Paper.—Standard sizes of the various classes. Standard weights. Equivalent weights of standard and odd sizes, and of reams consisting of 480, 504, or 516 sheets. Reams to the reel.
Watermarks and mill numbers.
Stocking of Paper.—What classes to select for stocking. Racks, for stock. The care of stock, samples, oddments, and useful offcuts. Tying up and marking reams. The effect of light, temperature, chemical fumes, damp and dust on the various classes of paper. Stock-keeping systems and books.
Boards.—Bristol, paste, pulp, wood-pulp, art and tinted, millboards and strawboards. Standard sizes; subdivisions and standard thicknesses. Boards to the cwt.
Market prices and terms for stock papers and makings.
Machine-made uncoated printing papers: their nature and qualities; dimensions of the more common printing papers, tinted and white, wove and laid, sized and unsized.
Hand- and machine-made; tinted; enamels (single and duplex coated); plain and glazed cards, their nature, qualities, and sizes. Paper creasing and its remedies.
Tests for printing properties; papers suitable for particular classes of work.