Philosophical Transactions/Volume 1/Number 5

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Numb. 5



Munday, July 3. 1665.

The Contents.

An Account, how Adits and Mines are wrought at Liege without Air-shafts, communicated by Sir Robert Moray.A way to break easily and speedily the hardest Rocks; imparted by the same Person, as he received it from Monsieur Du Son the Inventor.Observables upon a Monstrous Head.Observables in the Body of the Earl of Belcarres, sent out of Scotland.A relation of the designed Progress to be made in the Breeding of Silk-worms, and the Making of Silk, in France.Enquiries touching Agriculture, for Arable and Meadows.

An Account, how Adits & Mines are wrought at Liege without Air-shafts, communicated by Sir Robert Moray.

IT is well known to those conversant in Mines, that there is nothing of greater inconvenience in the working or driving, as they call it, of Mines or Adits under ground, for carrying away of Water, or such Minerals as the Mine affords, than the Damps, want, and impurity of Air, that occur when such Adits are wrought or driven inward upon a Level, or near it, 20, 30, or 40. fathom, more or less; Aswel because of the expence of money, as of time also, in the Ordinary way of preventing or remedying those inconveniences; which is, by letting down shafts from the day (as Miners speak) to meet with the Adit; by which means the Air hath liberty to play through the whole work, and so takes away bad vapours and furnishes good Air for Respiration. The Expence of which shafts, in regard of their vast depth, hardness of the Rock, drawing of water &c. doth sometimes equal, yea exceed the ordinary charge of the whole Adit.

Amongst the Expedients that have been devised to remedy this, there is one practised in the Coal-mines, near the Town of Liege (or Luyck) that seems preferable to all others for Efficacy, Ease, and Cheapness: the description whereof followeth.

At the mouth or entry of the Adit there is a structure raised of Brick, like a Chimney, some 28. or 30. foot high in all: at the bottom, two opposite sides are (or may be) some 51/2 foot broad; and the other two, 5. foot: the wall 11/2 Brick thick. At the lower part of it, is a hole, some 9. or 10. inches square, for taking out of the Ashes, which when it is done, this Ash-hole is immediately stopt so close, as Air cannot possibly get in at any part of it. Then, some 3. foot above ground or more, there is on that side, that is next to the Adit or Pit, a square hole of 8. or 9 inches every way; by which the Air enters to make the Fire burn: Into this hole there is fixed a square Tube or Pipe of Wood, whereof the joints and Chinks are so stopt with Parchment pasted or glewed upon them, that the Air can no where get in to the Pipe but at the end: And this Pipe is still lengthened, as the Adit or Pit advanceth, by fitting the new Pipes so, as one end is alwaies thrust into the other, and the Joints and Chinks still carefully cemented and stopt as before. So the Pipe or Tube being still carried on, as near as is necessary, to the wall or place, where fresh Air is requisite; the Fire within the Chimney doth still attract (so to speak) Air through the Tube, without which it cannot burn, which yet it will do, as is obvious to conceive, (all Illustrations, and Philosophical Explications being here superfluous,) and so, while the Air is drawn by the fire from the farthest or most inward part of the Mine or Adit, fresh Air must needs come in from without, to supply the place of the other, which by its motion doth carry away with it all the vapors, that breath out of the ground; by which means the whole Adit will be alwaies filled with fresh Air, so that men will there breath as surely as abroad, and not only Candles burn, but Fire, when upon occasion there is use for it for breaking of the Rock.

Now that there may be no want of such fresh Air, the Fire must alwaies be kept burning in the Chimney, or at least as frequently as is necessary: For which purpose there must be two of the Iron Grates or Chimneys, that when any accident befals the one, the other may be ready to be in its place, the Coals being first well kindled in it; but when the fire is neer spent, the Chimney or Grate being haled up to the dore, is to be supplied with fresh fuel.

The Figure of the Fabrick, Chimney, and all the parts thereof being hereunto annexed, the rest will be easily understood.
Figure 1.
A. The Hole for taking out the Ashes.

B. The Square-hole, into which the Tube or Pipe for conveying the Air is to be fixed.

C. The Border or Ledge of Brick or Iron, upon which the Iron-grate or Cradle, that holds the burning Coles, is to rest, the one being exactly fitted for the other.

D. The Hole where the Cradle is set.

E. The woodden Tube, through which the Air is conveyed towards the Cradle.

F. The Dore, by which the Grate and Cradle is let in, which is to be set 8. or 10. foot higher than the Hole D. and the Shutter made of Iron, or Wood that will not shrink, that it may shut very close; this Dore being made large enough to receive the Cradle with ease.

G. The Grate or Cradle, which is narrower below than above, that the Ashes may the more easily fall, and the Air excite the Fire; the bottom being barred as the sides.

H. The Border or Ledge of the Cradle, that rests upon the Ledge C.

I. Four Chains of Iron fastned to the four corners of the Cradle, for taking of it up, and letting of it down.

K. The Chain of Iron, to which the other are fastned.

L. The Pulley of Iron or Brass, through which the Chain passeth.

M. A Hook, on which the end of the Chain is fastned by a Ring, the Hook fixed being placed in the side of the Dore.

N. A Barr of Iron in the Walls, to which the Pulley is fastned.

The higher the Shaft of the Chimney is, the Fire draws the Air the better. And this Invention may be made use of in the Pits or Shafts, that are Perpendicular, or any wise inclining towards it, when there is want of fresh Air at the bottom thereof; or any molestation by unwholsom Fumes or Vapours.

A way to break easily and speedily the hardest Rocks, communicated by the same Person, as he received it from Monsieur Du Son, the Inventor.

Though the Invention of breaking with ease, and dispatch, hard Rocks, may be useful on several occasions, the benefit is incomparably great, that may thereby accrue to those, who have Adits or Passages to cut through hard Rocks, for making passage for Water to run out by, in Mines of Lead, Tin, or any other whatsoever; these Adits appearing to be the surest, cheapest, and most advantageous way imaginable, for draining of the same.

That which is here to be described, was invented by one of the most Excellent Mechanicks in the World, Monsieur du Son, who lately put it in practice himself in Germany, at the desire of the Elector of Mentz. The manner is, as followeth.

The Mine or Adit is to be made seven or eight foot high, which though it seem to make more work downwards, yet will be found necessary for making the better dispatch by rendring the Invention more effectual.

Philosophical Transactions - Volume 1 - Number 5 - Figure 2.png

There is a Tool of Iron well-steeled at the end, which cuts the Rock, (of the shape shewed by Fig. 2. here annexed;) 20. or 22. Inches long or more, and some 21/2 Inches Diameter at the steeled end, the rest being somewhat more slender. The steeled end is so shaped, as makes it most apt to pierce the Rock, the Angles at that end being still to be made the more obtuse, the harder the Rock is. This Tool is to be first held by the hand, in the place, where the Hole, to be made for the use, which shall here be shewed, is to be placed; that is, in the middle between the sides of the Rock, that is to be cut, but as near the bottom as may be. The Tool being placed, is to be struck upon with an Hammer, the heavier the better, either suspended by a Shaft turning upon a Pin, or otherwise, so as one man may manage the Hammer, while another holds the Tool or Piercer. It it be hung in a Frame, or other convenient way, he that manageth it hath no more to do, but to pull it up at first as high as he can, and let it fall again by its own weight, the motion being so directed, as to be sure to hit the Piercer right. After the stroke of the Hammer, he that holds the Piercer, is to turn it a little on its point, so that the Edges or Angles at the point may all strike upon a new place: and so it must still be shifted after every stroke, by which means, small Chipps will at every stroke be broken off, which must from time to time be taken out, as need requires. And thus the work must be continued, till the Hole be 18. or 20. Inches deep, the deeper the better. This Hole being made as deep as is required, and kept as streight and smooth in the sides, as is possible, there is then a kind of double Wedge to be made, and fitted exactly for it; the shape whereof is to be seen in the annexed 3. Figure.

Figure 3

This double Wedge, being 12. or 13. Inches long, each piece of it, and so made, as being placed in their due position, they may make up a Cylinder, cut Diagonal-wise. The two flat sides, that are contiguous, are to be greased or oyled, that the one may slip the more easily upon the other; and one of them, which to be uppermost, having at the great end a hol'ow Crease cut into it round about, for fastning a Cartridge, full of Gunpowder, to it with a thred, the round end of the Wedge being pared as much, as the thickness of the Paper or Pastboard, that holds the Powder, needs to make the outside thereof oven with the rest of the Wedge. This Wedge must have an Hole drilled through the longest side of it, to be filled with priming Powder, for firing of the Powder in the Cartridge; which needs have no more, than half a pound of Powder, though upon occasion a greater quantity may be used, as shall be found requisite.

Then this Wedge, being first thrust into the Hole with the Cartridge, the round side, where the Priming-hole is, being uppermost, the other Wedge is to be thrust in, home to the due position, care being taken, that they fit the Hole in the Rock as exactly as may be. Then the end of the lower Wedge being about an Inch longer, than that of the upper outwardly, and flatned, priming Powder is to be laid upon it, and a piece of burning Match or Thread dipt in Brimstone or other such prepared combustible Matter, fastned to it, that may burn so long, before it fire the Powder, as he, that orders it, may have time enough to retire quite out of the Pit or Adit, having first placed a piece of Wood or Iron so, as one end thereof, being set against the end of the lower Wedge, and the other against the side-wall, so as it cannot slip. Which being done, and the Man retired, when the Powder comes to take fire, it will first drive out the uppermost Wedge, as far as it will go; but the flaunting figure of it being so made, as the farther it goes backward, the thicker it grows, till at the last it can go no farther, then the fire tears the Rock to get forth, and so crackes and breaks it all about, that at one time a vast deal of it will either be quite blown out, or so crackt and broken, as will make it easy to be remov'd: And according to the effect of one such Cartridge, more may be afterwards made use of, as hath been said.

Observables upon a Monstrous Head.

Figure 4

This was the Head of a Colt, represented in the annexed Figure 4. first viewed by Mr. Boyle, who went into the Stable where the Colt lay, and got the Head hastily and rudely cut off; the Body thereof appearing to his Eye compleatly formed, without any Monstrosity to be taken notice of in it. Afterwards he caused it to be put into a Vessel, and covered with Spirit of Wine, thereby chiefly intending, to give good example, together with a proof, that by the help of the said Spirit, (which he hath recommended for such Properties in one of his Essays of the Usefulness of Natural Philosophy) the parts of Animals, and even Monsters, may in Summer it self be preserved long enough, to afford Anatomists the opportunities of examining them.

The Head being opened, and examined, it was found,

First, That it had no sign of any Nose in the usual place, nor had it any, in any other place of the Head, unless the double Bagg CC, that grew out of the midst of the forehead, were some rudiment of it.

Next, That the two Eyes were united into one Double Eye, which was placed just in the middle of the Brow, the Nose being wanting, which should have separated them, whereby the two Eye-holes in the Scull were united into one very large round hole, into the midst of which, from the Brain, entred one prety large Optick Nerve, at the end of which grew a great Double Eye; that is, that Membrane, called Sclerotis, which contained both, was one and the same, but seemed to have a Seam

by which they we joined, to go quite round it, and the fore or pellucid part was distinctly separated into two Cornea's by a white Seam that divided them. Each Cornea seemed to have its Iris, (or Rain-bow-like Circle) and Apertures or Pupils distinct; and upon opening the Cornea, there was found within it two Balls, or Crystalline Humours, very well shaped; but the other parts of it could not be so well distinguished, because the eye had been much bruised by the handling, and the inner parts confused and dislocated. It had four Eye-browes, placed in the manner exprest in Figure 4. by a a, b b: a a representing the lower, and b b, the upper Eyelids.

Lastly, That just above the Eyes, as it were in the midst of the Forehead, was a very deep depression, and out of the midst of that grew a kind of double Purse or Bagg, C C, containing little or nothing in it; but to some it seemed to be a production of the matter designed for the Nose, but diverted by this Monstrous Conception; perhaps the Processus mammillares joined into one, and covered with a thin hairy skin.

Observables in the Body of the Earl of Balcarres.

These following Observations, were a while since sent out of Scotland by an ingenious person, an Eye-witness, to Sir Robert Moray,

1. That the Belly of this Nobleman being opened, the Omentum or Net was found lean and small: his Liver very bigg; the Spleen bigg also, filled with a black and thick humour. His Stomach and Entralls all empty, of a Saffron-colour, distended with wind onely. The Bladder of Gall swelled with a black humour: the Kidneys filled with a kind of grumous bloud.

2. That in the Thorax or chest, the Lobes of the Lungs were all entire, but of a bad colour; on the left side somewhat black and blue, and on the right, whitish; with a yellowish knob under one of the Lobes.

3. That the Pericardium or the Case of the Heart being opened, there appeared none of that water, in which the Heart uses to swim; and the external Surface of it, from the Base to the Tipp, was not smooth, but very rough. It being cut asunder, a quantity of white and inspissate liquour run out, and beneath the Base, between the right and left Ventricle, two stones were found, whereof the one was as bigg as an Almond, the other, two Inches long and one broad, having three Auricles or crisped Angles: And in the Orifice of the right Ventricle, there was a fleshy fattish Matter.

4. That the whole Body was bloudless, thin, and emaciated, of a black and bluish Colour.

5. The Scull being opened, both the Cerebrum and Cerebellum were bigg in proportion to the Body; and out of it run much more Bloud, than was seen in both the other Regions together.

Of the designed Progress to be made in the Breeding of Silkworms, and the Making of Silk, in France.

The French King Henry the Fourth having made a general Establishment all over France, of planting and propagating of Mulberry-trees, and Breeding of Silkworms, in order to set up and entertain a Silktrade there; and having prospered so well in that Design, that in many parts of his Dominions great store of such Trees were raised, and Multitudes of Silk-Works propagated, to the great benefit of the French people, for as much as it was a considerable beginning to avoid the transport of several Millions abroad for buying of Silks, and withall an excellent means of well-imploying abundance of poor Orphans and Widows, and many old, lame, and other indigent and helpless people; The present French King, hath lately revived and seconded that Undertaking, by giving express order, that it should be promoted by all possible means, and particularly in the Metropolis of that Kingdom, and round about it; and that for that end the whole way concerning that Work and Trade should be fully and punctually communicated in Print; which hath also been executed by one Monsieur Isnard, in a Treatise published at Paris, in French, Intitled, Instructions for the Planting of White Mulberryes, the Breeding of Silkworms, and the Ordering of Silk in Paris, and the circumjacent Places. In which Book, the Method being represented, which that Great Prince Henry IV. used in establishing the said Work and Trade, together with the success thereof, and the advantages thence derived to his Subjects, the Author, from his own Experience, and long Practice, delivers (and seems to do it candidly) all what belongs in this business in four main heads. First, he teaches the Means of sowing, planting, and raising White Mulberryes (as the Foundation of Silkworks) shewing how many several wayes that may be done. Secondly, The Breeding of Silkworms, the choosing of good Eggs, and their hatching, as also the Feeding of the Worms, and preserving them from Sickness, and Curing them of it, together with the way of making them spin to best advantage, Thirdly, The manner of winding their Silk from their Bottoms, adding the Scheme of the Instrument serving for that purpose. Fourthly, The way of keeping Silkworms Eggs for the ensuing year.

Through the whole Book are scattered many not inconsiderable particulars, though perhaps known to most. The White Mulberry Tree, as it is in other qualities preferable to the Black, so this Author esteems it the best, not onely for the durableness of the wood, and its large extent of usefulness in Carpentry and Joyners work; but also for the fitness of its leaves (besides their principal use for the food of Silkworms) to fatten Sheep, Goats, Cowes, and Hoggs, only by boyling and mingling them with Bran. The Berryes themselves he commends as very excellent to fatten Poultry, and to make them lay Eggs plentifully. In the Changes, Working, and Generation of this Insect, he is very curious to observe many things. Their Metamorphoses, as is known, are four, whereof the form of the one hath no conformity with any of the rest. The first from an Egge (of the bigness of a Mustard-seed, and of a darkish Gray Colour, when good) to a Worm or Caterpillar, but of a domestick, noble, and profitable kind; Black, when it first comes forth, but growing white at last; having 24. feet, 8. on each side of the body, and 4. besides, close to each side of the head. During this form, they undergo constantly 4. Sicknesses, in which they cast their Skins, each sickness lasting about 4. days, wherein they feed not at all; but grow clearer, shorter, and thicker. The second; from a Worm to an Aurelia or Chrysalis, having the shape of a small Plum, whereunto it is transformed after its spinning time is past; in which state it lyes shut up, in hot Countries, for 14. or 15. dayes; in more temperate ones, 18. or 20. without any Food or Air, known to us. During which time this Insect leaves two Coats, both that of a Worm, whence 'tis changed into an Aurelia, and that of an Aurelia, whence it becomes a Papilio or Butterfly, in the Theca or Case. The third is, from Aurelia to a Butterfly coming out of the Theca with a head, leggs, and horns; for which passage it makes way by a whitish water, it casts upon the Silk, which moistning, and thereby in a manner putrefying it, the new creature thrusts out its head through the sharp end of the Case, by a Hole as big as its self. There is found no Excrement in the Case, but the two Skins onely, just now mentioned.

Before they begin to spin, and about the latter end of their feeding, they must, saith the Author, be often changed, and have Air enough, by opening the Windows of the Room, they are in, if it be not too ill Weather; else, saith he, the Silk that is in their Belly, will cause so extraordinary a heat in them, that it burns their gutts, and sometimes bursts them; and the same (being a substance that resembleth Gum or Burgundy Pitch) will putrefy and turn into a yellowish matter.

He maketh the best marks of their maturity for spinning to be, when they begin to quit their white Colour, and their green and yellow Circles, and grow of the Colour of Flesh, especially upon the tail; having a kind of a consistent sofeness, shewing that they have something substantial in their Stomachs.

As for their Working, he gives this account of it, that the first day they make only a Webb; the second, they form in this Webb their Cases, and cover themselves all over with Silk; the third day, they are no longer seen, and the dayes following they thicken their Cases, alwayes by one end or thread, which they never break off, themselves. This, he affirms, they put out with so much quickness, and draw it so subtle and so long, that, without an Hyperbole, the end or thread of every Case may have two Leagues in length. He advertiseth, that they must be by no means interrupted in their work, to the end, that all the Silk, they have in their bellyes, may come out.

Some eight dayes after they have finished their Work, as many of the best Cases, as are to serve for seed, viz. the first done, the hardest, the reddest and best coloured, must be chosen, and put a-part; and all diligence is to be used to winde off the silk with as much speed, as may be, especially if the Worms have nimbly dispatched their work.

Here he spends a good part of his Book, in giving very particular Instructions, concerning the way of winding off the silk, setting also down the form of the Oven and Instruments necessary for that work, which is the painfullest and nicest of all the rest.

Touching their Generation, he prescribeth that there be chosen as many male as female-Cases (which are discerned by this, that the males are more pointed at both ends of the Cases, and the females more obtuse on the ends, and bigger-bellyed) and that care be had, that no Cases be taken, but such wherein the Worms are heard rolling; which done, and they being come forth in the form of Butterflyes, having four wings, six feet, two horns, and two very black eyes, and put in a convenient place, the males fluttering with their wings, will joyn and couple with the females, after that these have first purged themselves of a kind of reddish humour by the fundament: in which posture they are to be left from Morning (which is the ordinary time of their coming forth) till evening, and then the females are to be gently pulled away, whereupon they will lay their eggs, having first let fall by the Fundament another humour, esteemed to proceed from the seed of the males; but the males are then thrown away as useless. He advertiseth, that if they be coupled longer then 9. or 10. hours, (which they will be, and that sometimes for 24. hours together, if they be let alone) either the female will receive very great hurt by it, or much seed will remain in her belly.

The seed at first coming out is very white, but within a day it becoms greenish, then red, at last by little and little gray, which colour it retains alwaies, the most coloured of an obscure gray, being the best; those grains, which never quit their whiteness, having no fecundity in them.

Each female emits ordinarily some 300. grains, more or less, some of them not being able to render them all, and dying with them in their belly. One ounce of seed will require an hundred pair of Cases, of as many Males as Females.

Care must be taken, that no Rats, Mice, Ants, or other Vermin, nor any Hens, or Birds, come neer the Seed, they being very greedy to eat them.

This is the substance of what is contained in this French Author, published at Paris on purpose to promote the Making of Silk there, as well as it is practised already in other parts of that Kingdom: which is represented here, to the end, that from this occasion the design, which the English Nation once did entertain of the increasing of Mulberry-trees, and the Breeding of Silk-worms, for the making of Silk within themselves, may be renewed, and that encouragement, given by King James of Glorious memory for that purpose (witness that Letter which he directed to the Lords Lieutenants of the several shires of England) and seconded by this Most Excellent Majesty, that now is, be made use of, for the honour of England and Virginia, and the increase of wealth to the people thereof: especially since there is cause of hope, that a double Silk-harvest may be made in one Summer in Virginia, without hindring in the least the Tobacco-Trade of that Countrey.

Enquiries concerning Agriculture.

Whereas the Royal Society, in prosecuting the Improvements of Natural knowledge, have it in design, to collect Histories of Nature and Arts, and for that purpose have already, according to the several Inclinations and Studies of their Members, divided themselves into divers Committees, to execute the said design: Those Gentlemen, which do constitute the Committee for considering of Agriculture, and the History and Improvement thereof, have begun their work with drawing up certain Heads of Enquiries, to be distributed to persons Experienced in Husbandry all over England, Scotland, and Ireland, for the procuring a faithful and solid information of the knowledg and practice already obtained and used in these Kingdoms; whereby, besides the aid which by this means will be given to the general End of collecting the aforementioned History, every place will be advantaged by the helps, that are found in any, and occasion ministred to consider, what improvements may be further made in this whole matter. Now to the End, that those Enquiries may be the more universally known, and those who are skilful in Husbandry, publicly invited to impart their knowledg herein, for the common benefit of their Countrey, it hath been thought fit to publish the effect of them in Print, and withall to desire, that what such persons shall think good from their own Knowledg and Experience to communicate hereupon, they would be pleased to send it to the Printers of the Royal-Society, to be delivered to either of the Secretaries of the same. The Enquiries follow.

1. For Arable.

1. The several kinds of the soyls of England, being supposed to be, either Sandy, Gravelly, Stony, Clayie, Chalky, Light-mould, Heathy, Marish, Boggy, Fenny, or Cold weeping Ground; information is desired, what kind of soyls your Country doth most abound with, and how each of them is prepared, when employed for Arable?

2. What peculiar preparations are made use of to these Soyls for each kind of Grain; with what kind of Manure they are prepared, when, how, & in what quantity the Manure is laid on?

3. At what seasons and how often they are ploughed; what kind of Ploughs are used for several sorts of Ground?

4. How long the several Grounds are let ly fallow?

5. How, and for what productions, Heathy Grounds may be improved? And who they are (if there be any in your Country) that have reduced Heaths into profitable Lands?

6. What ground Marle hath over head? How deep generally it lieth from the surface? What is the depth of the Marle it self? What the colour of it? Upon what grounds it is used? What time of the year it is to be laid on? How many loads to an Acre? What Grains Marled Land will bear, and how many years together? How such Marled Land is to be used afterwards, &c?

7. The kinds of Grain or Seed, usual in England being supposed to be either Wheat, Miscelane, Rye, Barley, Oats, Pease, Beans, Fitches, Buck wheat, Hemp, Flax, Rape; We desire to know, what sorts of Grains are sown in your Country, and how each of these is prepared for Sowing? Whether by steeping, and in what kind of Liquor? Or by mixing it, and with what?

8. There being many sorts of Wheat, as the White or Red Lammas, the bearded Kentish Wheat, the gray Wheat, the red or gray Pollard, the Ducks-bill Wheat, the red-eared, bearded Wheat, &c. And so of Oats, as the common Black, Blue, Naked, Bearded in North-wales and the like of Barley, Pease, Beans. &c. The Enquiry is, which of these grow in your Country, and in what Soyl; and which of them thrive best there; and whether each of them require a peculiar Tillage; and how they differ in goodness?

9. What are the chief particulars observable in the choice of Seed corn, and all kinds of Grain; and what kinds of Grain are most proper to succeed one another?

10. What Quantity of each kind is sown upon the Statute-Acre? And in what season of the Moon and year 'tis sowed?

11. With what instruments they do Harrow, Clod and Rowl, and at what seasons?

12. How much an Acre of good Corn, well ordered, generally useth to yield, in very good, in less good, and in the worst years?

13. Some of the common Accidents and Diseases befalling Corn in the growth of it, being Meldew, Blasting, Smut; what are conceived to be the Causes thereof, & what the Remedies?

14. There being other Annoyances, the growing Corn is exposed to, as Weeds, Worms, Flies, Birds, Mice, Moles, &c. how they are remedied?

15. Upon what occasions they use to cut the young Corn in the Blade, or to feed it; and what are the benefits thereof?

16. What are the seasons and waies of Reaping and Ordering each sort of Grain, before it be carried off the Ground?

17. What are the several waies of preserving Grain in the Straw, within and without doors, from all kind of Annoyance, as Mice, Heating, Rain, &c?

18, What are the waies of separating the several sorts of Grain from the Straw, and of dressing them?

19. What are the waies of preserving any stores of separated Grain, from the Annoyances they are obnoxious to?

2. For Meadows.

1. How the above-mentioned sorts of Soyl are prepared, when they are used for Pasture or Meadow?

2. The common Annoyances of these Pasture or Meadow Grounds being supposed to be, either Weeds, Moss, Sourgrass, Heath, Fern, Bushes, Bryars, Brambles, Broom, Rushes, Sedges, Gorse or Furzes; what are the Remedies thereof?

3. What are the best waies of Drayning Marshes, Boggs, Fenns, &c?

4. What are the several kinds of Grass, and which are counted the best?

5. What are the chief circumstances observable in the Cutting of Grass; and what in the making and preferring of Hay?

6. What kind of Grass is fittest to be preserved for winter-feeding? And what Grass is best for Sheep, for Cows, Oxen, Horses, Goats, &c.


The Reader is hereby advertised, that by reason the present Contagion in London, which may unhappily cause an interruption aswel of Correspondencies, as of Publick Meetings, the printing of these Philosophical Transactions may possibly for a while be intermitted; though endeavors shall be used to continue them, if it may be.

Printed with Licence, By John Martyn, and James Allestry, Printers to the Royal-Society, at the Bell in St. Pauls Church-Yard. 1665.