Popular Science Monthly/Volume 14/April 1879/Literary Notices

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Journal of a Tour in Marocco and the Great Atlas. By Joseph Dalton Hooker, K.C.S. I., C.B., Pres. R.S., Director of the Royal Gardens, Kew, etc.; and John Ball, F.R.S., M.R.I.A., etc., with an Appendix including a Sketch of the Geology of Marocco, by George Maw, F.L.S., F.G.S. Macmillan & Co. 1878. Pp. 489. Price, $6.50. Illustrated.

The territory of Marocco, which is larger than Spain, and is within six days' sail of England, extends along the Mediterranean from Algeria through the straits of Gibraltar to the Atlantic Ocean, and southward to nearly opposite the Canary Islands, having a coast-line of fully nine hundred miles. Although so near to Europe, this country, beyond its coast, is among the least known regions of the earth; but it is supposed to reach far into the Great Desert on the southern side of the Great Atlas range. It has been called the China of the West, but it is even more isolated and impenetrable than China itself. This scientific expedition to Marocco was undertaken at the beginning of April, 1871, and lasted till the middle of June, but for various reasons the account of it was not published till 1878. Delay of publication, however, can make no difference in the case of Marocco, where it seems there has been little change during the last two centuries. For a long time Sir Joseph D. Hooker had wished to explore the range of the Great Atlas, to learn whether its vegetation furnished connecting links between that of the Mediterranean and the peculiar flora of the Canary Islands. Maw had already made collections of living plants along the coast of Marocco, and had pushed farther into the interior than any but one preceding traveler, and Ball had visited the country in 1851, but its disturbed state made all exploration impossible. Now, however, through the intervention of the Foreign Office, the Sultan of Marocco gave permission for the visit of these distinguished travelers, and on the 7th of April they reached Tangier, one of the most important towns of Marocco, thirty-five miles from Gibraltar, on the coast of the Mediterranean. It is the residence of the diplomatic agents sent from other countries, and consequently the Moorish authorities are somewhat under the control of civilized opinion, and life and property are tolerably secure. Its neighborhood is the only part of all Marocco where a naturalist can wander without an escort of soldiers, and hence little was known of the flora of the empire, except collections from the Djebel Kebir or Great Mountain just west of Tangier. Before going to south Marocco, it was needful for their safety and success that the travelers should have an auto-graph letter from the Sultan, to prevent the local authorities from defeating their purpose. They had to wait several days for this document, and spent the interval in exploring the Lesser Atlas, with results of exceeding interest, which are set forth in the second chapter of the work. The Sultan's letter at length arrived. It was written "on a small sheet of inferior paper, folded to the size of a note, and sealed with coarse sealing wax." It was addressed to the Governor of Mogador, and ran thus: "On receiving this, you will send the English hakeem, and his companions to the care of my slave, El Gradui, to whom I have sent orders what to do." This slave was the Governor of that portion of the Great Atlas which it was desired to explore. They started at once for south Marocco, and reached the port of Mogador on the 26th. Thanks to the Sultan's letter, the Governor provided for their safety and comfort during their journey across the plains from Mogador to Marocco. They had time to study the region about Mogador, and their observations, meteorological, geographical, zoölogical, and ethnological, as well as botanical, are recorded in Chapter IV. Chapters V. and VI. narrate the journey from Mogador to Marocco. The six following chapters are devoted to the exploration of the Great Atlas. Chapter XIII. describes their second stay at Mogador, their return to Tangier and England, and Chapter XIV. discusses the future prospects of Marocco. The narrative from first to last is one of absorbing interest, not only to botanists but to readers of all classes. The maps and pictures add greatly to the interest and value of the work. It is scarcely possible in the space at our disposal to give any fair idea of the work by means of extracts. The great ability and experience of the authors are evident not only in the delightful and instructive account of each day's proceedings, but equally in the reflections scattered throughout the volume upon numerous subjects, suggested by the physical, social, and political aspects of this strange country. For instance, in speaking of the climate of north Marocco, we have the following:

Nothing is more rare than to find a country where neither the natives nor foreign visitors have any complaint to make against the climate, and in this respect Marocco is almost unique. As regards the season of our visit, however, our case was that of nearly all travelers in whatever country they may find themselves. We had arrived in an exceptional season! How often is this fact gravely stated as something remarkable and unusual in the experience of the narrator, whereas, if he would but reflect, it merely represents the common experience of mankind in most countries of the earth! Excepting some portions of the equatorial zone, where the seasons recur with tolerable constancy, our notions of the climate of a place are got at by taking an average among a great many successive seasons. Any one who watches the meteorological notices, published in our newspapers, must be aware that if any particular day, week, or month be compared with the general average for the same period during a long term of years, he will find it considerably hotter, or colder, or drier, or moister, than the corresponding average day, week, or month; and, when registers have been kept for a sufficient time in other countries, the same result will be seen to hold good. Travelers will then be prepared to find that they should expect to enjoy, or suffer from, an exceptional season, and will think it more remarkable when they happen to alight on a season near to the average.

We also note the following hint to travelers:

The net result of our short excursion was not large or brilliant; but, in the case of a country so little known as Marocco, the interest of his collections to a naturalist does not mainly depend on the rarity or novelty of the objects he may happen to meet. Each plant or animal carried away contributes an item of information respecting the distribution of the organized world, the value of which it is impossible at the time to estimate. Travelers who happen to visit little-known countries would do well to remember that with the most trifling trouble they may make useful contributions to natural science, by preserving specimens of the most insignificant looking objects, provided always that these are afterward placed in the hands of competent naturalists.

International Scientific Series, No. XXV. Education as a Science. By Alexander Bain, LL. D., Professor of Logic in the University of Aberdeen. New York: D. Appleton & Co. Pp. 453. Price, $1.75.

In the maturity of his studies as an original investigator of the science of mind, and in the ripeness of his experience as a practical teacher in the higher sphere, Professor Bain has suspended the course of his customary work to prepare a little treatise on education, and we have no doubt that, as it is the latest, so it will be regarded as the best and most valuable, of his books. Less formidable than his elaborate volumes on "The Senses and the Intellect" and "The Emotions and the Will," the new book is still very full, and brings us to the more important application of the views contained in these works. In so far as education depends upon principles, it is capable of being dealt with as a science; and, though a practical art, yet like all other arts it must be pursued by blind habit or under rational guidance. We have pointed out again and again in this "Monthly" how the science of mind has been widened in modern times so as to include its corporeal conditions, and thus bring the living being into view as a psychical organism rather than the mere abstraction of mind. This is the method of the modern psychology, the immense superiority of which over the old mental philosophy is most apparent in the field of education. We know nothing of mind except as manifested through its organic machinery. When we consider mind as mental force, it at once becomes complicated with the bodily energies, and it appears under limited and quantitative laws, which it should be the first task of the teacher to master. Mind and body are developed together, and the former can not be intelligently led out except under inflexible corporeal restrictions. Professor Bain's long familiarity with this point of view has specially and eminently qualified him to prepare a practical manual of school culture that treats educational questions in detail in harmony with the present state of knowledge.

It is impossible to give anything like an adequate analysis of this admirable work within the limits of an ordinary literary notice, nor, indeed, is it necessary. Portions of it have already appeared from time to time in this magazine, by which our readers have been somewhat informed of its scope and object. Yet the articles published fail to convey any just idea of the adaptation of the book to the needs of those engaged in the work of practical instruction. Certain important psychological considerations of a general nature were brought forward in a way to illustrate their grave significance, but little, however, was said of their bearing on the exigencies of school-work. In the volume these expositions are recast and thrown into such a shape that their applications and bearings are brought out in their full force. The various current studies in our schools are taken up systematically, with the view of determining their educational power, and how they stand related to the unfolding of the mental faculties. This is a most important portion of the work, one hitherto greatly neglected by educators, and the conclusions of which require to be sharply brought out and vigorously enforced. The waste of exertion on worthless objects of study in our schools is something frightful—objects of trifling worth alike in the information they give and in the narrow and imperfect mental discipline they afford. In regard to the study of languages especially, Professor Bain's views are entitled to the most serious attention. The study of language, its critical and careful study, Professor Bain of course recognizes to be of the first importance; but, at the same time, he maintains that the educating power of language is enormously over-estimated. That which is but a preliminary use of tools, indispensable in itself, but utterly subordinate to the larger objects beyond, to which it is but a means and a stepping-stone, has been exalted into the great end, and almost the whole time of education is thus wasted upon initial acquisitions. Professor Bain denies that the study of language, however extended, can educate in any real or adequate sense. After considering this subject, and laying down the principles that should guide its study, and the practice of lingual exercises, he passes, in Chapter X., to the formal consideration of the value of the classics. With this gigantic superstition he makes no terms. The pretexts for its continued ascendancy are successively and effectually exploded. Without denying that some small benefit may of course arise from the study of dead languages, as hitherto and commonly pursued, he demonstrates the utter futility of the several claims put forward in their behalf, and shows how, by standing in the way of modern studies, the classics are a fatal hindrance to that broad and thorough mental discipline which can only be acquired by a larger exercise of the mind in scientific methods, and upon the knowledge of actual things.

An important phase of the work is the treatment of what Professor Bain calls the logical or analytical problem of education. It involves the question of the sequence of subjects in the various schemes of study, both in relation to the order of the unfolding faculties and with reference to the logical dependence of the subjects themselves. The art of teaching, its various methods, and the principles that should guide them, involving a discussion of the philosophy of object-lessons, are prominently dealt with. Moral education receives passing attention, and Professor Bain suggests various changes which the present system must sooner or later undergo, in a chapter on the higher studies in the curriculum of the future. The author says: "The general strain of the work is a war not so much against error as against confusion. The methods of education have already made much progress, and it were vain to look forward to some single discovery that could change our whole system. Yet I believe that improvements remain to be effected. I take every opportunity of urging that the division of labor in the shape of disjoining incongruous exercises is a chief requisite in any attempt to remodel the teaching art."

We recommend this book emphatically to all teachers, parents, superintendents, and school trustees, who have any serious interest in the improvement of education, and can prize efficient and intelligent help in carrying on their work.

Demonology and Devil-Lore. By Daniel Moncure Conway, M. A. With numerous Illustrations. New York: Henry Holt & Co. 1879. 2 vols. Pp. 444 and 484. Price, $7.

Mr. Conway's studies in demonology were begun many years ago, and in 1859 he published in the series known as "Tracts for To-day" (Cincinnati) an essay entitled "Natural History of the Devil." The very title of that tract was evidence that its author had in his hand the one clew which could conduct him surely through the mazes of the weird and fantastic demon-world. Monstrous and unearthly as the forms of that strange world may appear, they were every one the product of the normal operations of man's mind, as modified by its internal and external conditions, and they can be explained and understood only by tracing them to that source—in other words, by developing their natural history. But twenty years ago the idea that demons and devils have a natural history was not so obvious a one as it is to-day; and our author, in giving that title to his essay, approved himself to be a bold and original thinker. Nevertheless, as he confesses in the preface to the work before us, he had then no adequate conception of the vastness of the domain which he attempted to survey. But reading and observation in foreign countries have since given him at once larger and clearer views of that phantasmal world of which, as a denizen of the North American Continent, he had only heard a rumor, so to speak. True, being a native of Virginia, and bred on a plantation, Mr. Conway enjoyed the advantage of observing the phases of demonism in the negro mind; but, for all that, it was only after he had visited in Europe the haunts of the ancient chimeras, goblins, and demons, and made himself familiar with the traditions current among the lower orders of the population, that he could realize the all pervading force of this superstition.

In the present work Mr. Conway sets forth the results of his protracted researches. The amount of material he has accumulated is enormous, and yet he has by no means exhausted the subject. He aptly likens his effort to "Thor's attempt to drink up a small spring, and his failure because it was fed by the ocean." It would be labor in vain for any one man to attempt a full account of the world of demons and devils—a world as diversified and as vast as the physical world around us—and our author has wisely restricted himself to giving illustrations of its leading typical forms. Like another Linné he groups in genera and species, so to speak, these creatures of phantasy, and thus out of direst confusion evolves order and system. Hence his work is valuable, both as a repertory of out-of the-way information and as an essay in psychological analysis.

It is impossible to give within the limits of a notice like this even an outline of the author's argument, and therefore we will simply call attention to a few of the noteworthy points developed in the work. And first we find a distinction drawn between "demon" and "devil." Demons are beings whose harmfulness is not gratuitous, but incidental to their own gratifications; a devil loves evil for its own sake. Sometimes a god belonging to a conquered tribe is degraded to the rank of a demon in the mythology of the conquerors. Again, there are demons (or, as the case may be, devils) created by pure accident! "Belial" is an instance of this, being an erroneous personification of "godlessness." The author's remarks on demonism in India are à propos: "The Hindoos have covered their land with temples to propitiate and deprecate the demons, and to invoke the deities against. . . drought and famine. Had they concluded that famine was the result of inexactly quartered sun-dials, the land would have been covered with perfect sun-dials; but the famine would have been more destructive, because of the increasing withdrawal of mind and energy from the true cause, and its implied answer. But how much wiser are we of Christendom than the Hindoos? They have adapted their country perfectly for propitiation of famine-demons that do not exist, at a cost which would long ago have rendered them secure from the famine forces that do exist. We have similarly covered Christendom, . . . while around our churches, chapels, cathedrals, are the actually existent seething hells of pauperism, shame, and crime." Demonism still subsists among the most enlightened nations, backed by the sternest sanctions it is possible to conceive. "A story is told of a man wandering on a dark night over Dartmoor, whose feet slipped over the edge of a pit. He caught the branch of a tree suspended over the terrible chasm, but, unable to regain the ground, shrieked for help. None came, though he cried out till his voice was gone; and there he remained dangling in agony until the gray light revealed that his feet were only a few inches from the solid ground! Such are the chief demons that bind men till cock-crow. Such are the apprehensions that waste also the moral and intellectual strength of man, and murder his peace as he regards the necessary science of his time to be cutting some frail tenure sustaining him over a bottomless pit, instead of a release from real terror to the solid ground."

The passages we have quoted will give an idea of our author's style and point of view. There is hardly a page of the work which does not contain sentences full of epigrammatic force. Speaking, for instance, of the divers forms ascribed to the devil, Mr. Conway says that "the whites painted him black, and the blacks, with much more reason, painted him white."

Paradoxical Philosophy: A Sequel to "The Unseen Universe." London and New York: Macmillan & Co. 1878. Pp. 235. Price, $1.75.

The readers of "The Unseen Universe" will find in the present volume, which is by the same authors, a further discussion of the question of a future state. The work purports to report the proceedings of an imaginary "paradoxical society" at one of its anniversary meetings, and the conflicting views of many different schools of thought upon this subject are set forth with considerable force, and in a way that will interest the most listless reader. The whole subject is treated in the light of modern science; and, though the problem is not brought one hair's breadth nearer to a solution by the clash of arguments, new points of view are at least indicated, new proofs suggested, new difficulties shown to lie in the way of accepting whether the materialistic or the idealistic philosophy. But no less hopeless appears to be the attempt to effect a reconciliation between these two; and the ancient enigma, "Whither are we going?" still remains.

How to be plump, or Talks on Physiological Feeding. By T. C. Duncan, M. D. Chicago: Duncan Brothers. 1878. Pp. 60. Price, 50 cents.

The doctor who writes this book had the good fortune, several years ago, to be employed in the family of an oyster-dealer, and, though it is not stated that oysters were at the time a "legal tender" in Chicago, they appear to have suddenly become a rather large element in our author's bill of fare, since he often ate them when he did not want them, "rather than let them spoil." "Other food" was taken "after or with the oysters"; and whether absence of the harassing cares of a large practice can be counted in or not, certain it is that the doctor, oddly enough, soon found himself growing stout. "The quieting effects of a few pounds of fat" gave him a "clew to much of the restless activity of Americans"; this led to "much thought" during the next ten years on the subject of "physiological feeding," and, as one of the results, we have the present book. All there is of value in its sixty pages could be better said in as many lines, and they would then contain nothing beyond the merest commonplaces of physiology.

What is the Bible? By J. T. Sunderland. New York: Putnam's Sons. 1878. Pp. 189. $1.

The object of the author in composing this book was to help readers of the Bible to be intelligent readers, not only in the small and meager sense of knowing by heart a multitude of texts, but also in the larger and more worthy way of understanding that book as a whole—whence it came, how it came, what it is, and what relation it bears to other sacred books of the race. The Bible is treated with a reverent spirit by Mr. Sunderland, but that reverence does not prevent him from discerning and pointing out its blemishes. He compares the book to a gold mine, rich indeed in the precious metal, but still a mine. There are fools who insist that the whole "output" of this mine is pure gold; no less is the folly of others who, because they see earth and quartz mixed with the gold, declare that the mine contains no gold. "The part of rational men and women," says the author, "surely is to delve earnestly in the mine, casting out, without hesitation, what plainly is not gold, but saving and treasuring up what clearly is gold."

How to parse. By Rev. E. A. Abbott, D. D. Boston; Roberts Brothers. 1878. Pp. 343. $1.

The title of this book is not a very attractive one, and will repel, we fancy, rather than win readers. "Parsing" has fallen into disrepute, and few persons will care to know how it should be performed. But if, overlooking the title, we examine the book, it will be found to contain a great deal of valuable information. What is more, it will serve to give the student an insight into the scientific principles of English grammar.

The Natural History of the Agricultural Ant of Texas. By Henry Christopher McCook. Philadelphia: The author (Academy of Natural Sciences). 1879. Pp. 310, with 24 Lithographic Plates. $4.

A more instructive and entertaining matter of study than the ant tribe it would not be easy to find in the whole animal kingdom outside of man; and, of all the ants, certainly none are more worthy of our attention than the species described in Mr. McCook's present work. A naturalist resident in Texas, the late Dr. Gideon Lincecum, had at sundry times between 1861 and the period of his death, some five or six years ago, contributed to the proceedings of various learned societies notes on the habits of the agricultural ant, but his observations, as we learn from Mr. McCook, were discredited by not a few entomological writers. It was the author's good fortune to confirm in almost every particular the results of the Texas naturalist, and to add to them a multitude of fresh observations of his own. We therefore heartily welcome the volume, not only on account of the information it contains touching the agricultural ant, but also because it is a triumphant vindication of one of the most ingenious of American naturalists. Mr. McCook, in successive chapters, treats of the surface architecture and work of the agricultural ants, their harvesting habits, their subterranean architecture, their modes of mining, their food and feeding, their "toilet, sleeping, and funeral habits," their social and (if the term be allowable) their political relations, their migrations and movements, their wars; and, finally, he gives a detailed description of their anatomy.

House Air the Cause and Promoter of Disease. By Frank Donaldson, M. D. Baltimore: Innes & Co. print. 1878. Pp. 23.

The author insists on the necessity of frequently renewing the air of inhabited rooms. To the objection that fuel is too costly, and people can not afford to let in the cold air, he replies: "True, more fuel must be consumed. But is not the additional expense a small matter compared with the healthfulness resulting from it? Fresh air is better worth paying for than even food; it is more essential to health."

Wanderings in South America, the Northwest of the United States, and the Antilles, in the Years 1812, 1816, 1820, and 1824, with Original Instructions for the Perfect Preservation of Birds, etc., for Cabinets of Natural History. By Charles Waterton, Esq. New edition. Edited, with Biographical Introduction and Explanatory Index, by the Rev. J. G. Wood, with One Hundred illustrations. London and New York: Macmillan & Co. 1879. Pp. 520. Price, $6.50.

This elegant volume opens with an interesting biographical sketch of the distinguished traveler, whose "Wanderings" has long been the delight of all lovers of natural history. From this sketch we learn that Charles Waterton was born in 1782, in Yorkshire, England. He was descended from a long line of distinguished ancestors, and in early boyhood began to develop that love of nature, power of observation, and originality of character for which he was afterward so celebrated. When ten years old he was sent away to school, and, although the first journey described in his book did not commence till twenty years later, his "wanderings" may be said to have begun at this time. In spite of the stern discipline to which he was subjected, his activity, enterprise, and love of adventure, led him into all sorts of scrapes, from which, however, he generally contrived to escape without serious harm. Such was his attempt to ride a cow, over whose horns he was quickly pitched; at another time he undertook a sail on the horse-pond in a wash-tub, with the usual fate of such daring navigators. Running away from school to go birds'-nesting, and throwing his pursuers off the track by hiding under the litter in a pig-sty, was another characteristic performance.

At fourteen he was transferred to a higher school, where, ranking among the foremost as a scholar, he also found peculiar opportunities for indulging his love of fun and freedom. His teachers early perceiving the bent of his disposition, were sagacious enough to give it fair play, by permitting him to use a portion of his time in carrying on a war of extermination against the rats that infested the place in enormous numbers. His success with these led to an extension of hostilities to the foxes, polecats, and rooks, that were also numerous in the neighborhood; he likewise held the post of organ-blower and foot-ball maker to the "entire satisfaction of the public." At eighteen he left school, remained a year at home, and then took a trip to Spain, where he learned the Spanish language. While visiting relatives in the city of Malaga, he suddenly found himself a prisoner, owing to an outbreak of the plague, which led to measures of rigid quarantine. He took the disease, but fortunately, owing to his simple mode of life and strong constitution, recovered from the attack. Fourteen thousand people perished in the city during that epidemic. Though the port was closed, and all avenues of egress carefully guarded, he succeeded in escaping from the city in time to avoid a second epidemic in the following year, which carried off thirty thousand more of the city's population. Returning to England, he spent some time there in recovering his shattered health, and then started for Demerara, in South America, to take charge of an estate belonging to his family. There he remained for eight years, when, owing to the death of relatives, the property passed into other hands. He now began his famous travels, setting out on his first journey from the town of Stabroek "to travel through the wilds of Demerara and Essequibo, a part of ci-devant Dutch Guiana, in South America." "The chief objects in view," he says, "were to collect a quantity of the strongest wourali poison; and to reach the inland frontier fort of Portuguese Guiana." With this start, which was made in April, 1812, the record of Waterton's observations and experiences known as the "Wanderings" begins.

The special objects of this journey were both attained, and a large amount of interesting information on other matters also gathered, but fatigue and exposure had told on the health of the "wanderer," and he found it necessary to return to England, where he remained for the next three years. In the spring of 1816, his health now being fully restored, he again started for South America, landing first at Pernambuco, and sailing thence after a brief stay for Cayenne in French Guiana. The forests of Demerara were, however, his objective point, and without delay he plunged into their wilds a second time, staying several months, and giving particular attention to the fauna of the country, taking back with him to England a fine collection of birds. In February, 1820, he sailed a third time for Demerara, and, continuing his explorations for a season, returned to England at the end of a year with a larger number of specimens than he had before been able to obtain. But this time a stinging disappointment awaited his arrival. Although his specimens were intended solely for his own museum, and were none of them for sale, impudent and overzealous custom-house officials gave no end of trouble when he landed by detaining his cases of material, and subsequently exacting heavy duties as a condition of their release. Appeal to the Government did no good, and, smarting under a sense of the outrage, he retired to his home in Yorkshire, resolved not to expose himself to similar annoyance and insult again. Three years later, however, he started on his fourth and last journey, described in the "Wanderings," this time going first to New York, and, after a short trip in the United States, returning by the way of the British West Indies to Demerara. After a stay of a few months, mostly spent in further explorations, he resumed his homeward voyage, reaching England early in 1825.

Mr. Waterton was a keen observer, and in the regions which he visited permitted little in the line of natural history to escape him. The topography of the country, its plants and animals, and the character and habits of its human inhabitants, all received attention; and though at first many of his descriptions were met with incredulity and some of them even with derision, fifty years have served to confirm their accuracy in nearly every particular, and to show that, as an enthusiastic and painstaking investigator, Mr. Waterton had few equals and no superiors. Added to this, the story is simply and most charmingly told, an abundant sprinkling of quiet humor and occasional vivid descriptions of exciting adventures serving to enliven and give variety to the narrative. The "Wanderings" close with a chapter on taxidermy, in which the author attained remarkable proficiency, especially in the mounting of birds. He introduced many improvements in the art, and offers numerous valuable hints for those interested in the preservation of natural history specimens.

Besides the biography, which occupies the first five chapters of the book, Mr. Wood has supplied a full "Explanatory Index," which contains a large amount of valuable information regarding the animals and plants mentioned in the "Wanderings." Many of these were described by Mr. Waterton under their local names, which, for scientific purposes, were of little use. In type, paper, illustrations, and binding, the publisher has left nothing to be desired.

The American Journal of Otology. Edited by Clarence J. Blake, M. D. Quarterly. Vol. I., No. 1. New York: William Wood & Co. Pp. 80. Price, $3 per year.

As the editor of this new journal remarks in his introductory note, "the past ten years have seen a remarkable increase of interest in the study of the laws which govern the production and propagation of sonorous vibrations, and correspondingly in the structure, functions, and diseases" of the ear. Hence the "Journal of Otology" is a welcome addition to the list of American medical and scientific periodicals. The editor is assisted by a very strong staff, viz., Professor A. M. Mayer, Dr. Albert H. Buck, Dr. C. H. Burnett, Dr. J. Orne Green, and Dr. H. N. Spencer. The articles in the present number are: "Graphic and Photographic Illustrations of Sound-Waves," by the editor; "Growth of Aspergillus in the Living Human Ear," by Dr. C. H. Burnett; "Syphilitic Affections of the Ear," by Dr. A. H. Buck; "Use of Calcium Sulphide in the Treatment of Inflammations of the External Auditory Meatus," by Dr. S. Sexton; Book Notices; and Reviews.

Industrial Education. By Professor Alexander Hogg. Galveston, Texas: "News" Print. 1879. Pp. 52.

The author, who is a Professor of Mathematics in the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas, in his first chapter sketches a course of studies suitable for an institution of that kind; in his second and third chapters he describes the present state of the Texas Agricultural College, and points to some of its more pressing needs.

Air and Moisture on Shipboard: A Fragment of Applied Physiology. By Th. J. Turner, A. M., M. D., Ph. D. Pp. 15.

The notion is prevalent that life on shipboard is especially healthy, and the doctors are constantly sending patients to sea for the benefits they are there expected to obtain. That the belief is an error, and the practice a mistaken one, this pamphlet abundantly proves. Indeed, according to the statistics which the author gives, few unhealthier places can be found than one of our modern naval vessels when in active service. This appears to be due mainly to foul air and a superabundance of moisture, both of which, as the writer points out, can be easily avoided by the substitution of a few simple sanitary measures for the stupid routine that now commonly controls in the management of ships.

On the Genealogy of Plants (20 pp.), and On the Natural Succession of the Dicotyledons (11 pp.). By Lester F. Ward, A. M. Reprinted from the "American Naturalist."

The first of these pamphlets begins with an indictment of the present system of botanical classification, which the author regards as altogether out of harmony with the facts of organic evolution as developed during the last twenty years; and as requiring the introduction of certain important modifications, some of which he outlines. The second pamphlet is a discussion of the classification of the dicotyledons, from the same point of view, namely, that of the evolutionist.

Notes on Cladocera. By Edward A. Birge, Ph. D., Instructor in the University of Wisconsin. Pp. 33, with Two Plates.

This is a technical description of several new species and one new genus of minute fresh-water crustaceans found by the author at different localities in this country. The water-flea (Daphnia) is a familiar example of the group.

The Air we breathe. New York: S. Hamilton's Sons Print. Pp. 17.

We have here a report of a Citizens' Committee on the nuisances of New York City, or rather on its "stench-factories"—slaughter-houses, fat-rendering establishments, etc.

The Soul and the Resurrection. By J. H. Kellogg, M. D. Battle Creek, Michigan: "Review and Herald" Publishing Association. 1879. Pp. 224. Price, 75 cents.

Here is another attempt at establishing harmony between science and the Bible. The author looks on science and the Bible as "complementary revelations," though the latter he regards as of by far the greater importance. Still, he does not by any means require that science should surrender at discretion to its "superior." On the contrary, indeed, not a few of our author's propositions seem to us to imply that the whole body of "revealed truth" is subject to revision and correction by science. The orthodox reader will be shocked when he finds the harmonizer plainly declaring that "the study of mind is now a subject for the physiologist," and that "the soul is neither conscious nor immortal."

Principal Characters of the American Jurassic Dinosaurs. With Plates. Pp. 6. A New Order of Extinct Reptiles. By Professor O. C. Marsh. With Plates. Pp. 8.

These papers are reprinted from the "American Journal of Science." We gave an abstract of each of them on their appearance in our contemporary.

The Principles of Breeding. By Professor W. H. Brewer. Pp. 20.

Professor Brewer is an authority on the subject which he has treated in this too brief paper. It is reprinted from the reprint of the Secretary of the New Hampshire Board of Agriculture.

Notes on the Aphididæ of the United States. By C. V. Riley and J. Monell. With Plates from Hayden's Survey. Pp. 32.

In this paper are set forth many interesting biological facts relating to the gall-making Pemphiginæ. Such facts possess a peculiar importance just at present, on account of the close relationship between these insects and the Phylloxera of the grapevine.

Art Anatomy. By Dr. A. J. Howe. Pp. 23.

The painter and sculptor will find many a valuable hint in this unpretending little essay.


The Speaking Telephone, Electric Light, and other Recent Electrical Inventions. By George B. Prescott. With Illustrations. New York: D. Appleton & Co. 1879. Pp. 616. $4.

Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science (1877). London: John Murray. Pp. 679.

Die Entwickelnng dea Menschengeschlechtes. Von Dr. Adelrich Steinach. Basel: Benno Schwabe; New York: Schlaepfer, 109 Allen St. 1878. Pp. 687. $2.50.

The Currency Question from a Southern Point of View. By R. W. Hughes. New York: Putnam's Sons. 1879. Pp. 222. $1.25.

Testing of Water-Wheels and Machinery. By James Emerson. Springfield, Massachusetts: Weaver, Shipman & Co. print. 1878. Pp. 216. $1.50.

Naval Hygiene; Human Health. By Joseph Wilson, M.D. With Colored Lithographs. Philadelphia: Lindsay & Blakiston. 1879. Pp. 274. $3.

Report of the United States Entomological Commission (1877). With Plates. Washington: Government Printing-Office. 1878. Pp. 771.

The Young Scientist. Vol. I. New York: Industrial Publication Co. 1878. Pp. 164.

Reading as a Fine Art. By Ernest Legouvé. Boston: Roberts Bros. 1879. Pp. 97. 50 cents.

Report of the Observations of the Total Solar Eclipse (1878) made at Fort Worth. Leonard Waldo, Editor. Cambridge: Press of John Wilson & Son. 1879. Pp. 60.

Habit and Intelligence. By John Joseph Murphy. Revised edition. London and New York: Macmillan. Pp. 621. $5.

After Death what? By Rev. W. H. Piatt. Revised and enlarged. San Francisco: Roman & Co. Pp. 209. $1.25.

Health, and how to promote it. By Richard McSherry, M.D. New York: D. Appleton & Co. Pp. 196. $1 25.

Archivos do Museu nacional do Rio de Janeiro. With Plates. Rio de Janeiro: Typographia do imperial instituto artistico. 1878. Vol. II., Pp. 175; Vol. III., Pp. 50.

Proceedings of the New England Cotton Manufacturers' Association. Boston: A. Williams & Co. print. Pp. 79.

Voussoir Arches. By William Cain, C. E. New York: Van Nostrand. 1879. Pp. 196. 50 cents.

Journal of Physiology. Michael Foster, M.D., Editor. With Plates. London and New York: Macmillan. Vol. I, No. 6. Pp. 70. $5.25 per year.

American Statistical Review. Quarterly. New York: D. Appleton & Co. Vol. I., Part 1. Pp. 120. $5 per year.

A Rational View of the Bible. By Newton M. Mann. Rochester, New York: Charles Mann print. 1879. Pp. 136.

The Horse and his Diseases. By B. J. Kendall, M.D. Enosburg Falls, Vermont: Published by the Author. Pp. 89. 25 cents.

Proceedings of the American Chemical Society. New York: Baker & Godwin print. 1879. Vol. II., No. 4. Pp. 24.

Chemical Examinations of Sewer Air. By Professor William Ripley Nichols. Boston: Rockwell & Churchill print. 1879. Pp. 16.

The Wisconsin Tornadoes of May 23, 1878. By W. W. Daniels. With Plates. Pp. 41.

Philosophy of Christianity. By Pliny E. Chase. Pp. 31.

The Hydatiform Mole. By J. W. Underhill, M.D. Cincinnati: "Lancet" print. 1879. Pp. 20.

The Female Generative Organs in their Medico-Legal Relations. By the same Author. New York: W. Wood & Co. Pp. 20.

Flora of Richmond County, New York. By Arthur Hollick and N. L. Britton. Staten Island: Published by the Authors. 1879. Pp. 36. 50 cents.

Annual Report of the Schools of the Province of Ontario (1877). Toronto: Hunter, Rose & Co. print. Pp. 260.

The Devonian Brachiopoda of Pará, Brazil. By Richard Rathbun. From "Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History." Pp. 39.

Sketch of New Zealand. By I. C. Russell. From "American Naturalist." Pp. 13.

Beneficial Influence of Plants. By J. M. Anders, M.D. From "American Naturalist." Pp. 15.

Relation of the National Government to Science. Speech of Hon. J. A. Garfield. Washington. 1879. Pp. 7.

Industrial Arbitration and Conciliation. By Joseph D. Weeks. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania: Anderson & Son print. Pp. 16.

The Triassic Formation of New Jersey and the Connecticut Valley. By I. C. Russell. New York: Gregory Bros, print. Pp. 35.

The Animal, Vegetable, and Mineral Kingdoms. By Mrs. N. B. Walker. New York: Wilbur & Hastings print. 1879. Pp. 18.

Report of the Freedmen's Aid Society of the M.E. Church (1878). Cincinnati: Book Concern. Pp. 64.

The Cobden Club. Letter by S. S. Boyce. Pp. 5.

Nature and Possibilities of Social Science. By Pierce Burton. Aurora, Illinois: "Herald" print. Pp. 8.

Common Sense on the Salt Question. By Henry A. Mott, Jr. New York: Nesbitt & Co. print. Pp. 11.

Natural Method in Language. By John E. Earp. Indianapolis: Douglass & Carlon print. 1879. Pp. 8.