Popular Science Monthly/Volume 17/July 1880/Literary Notices

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Preadamites; or a Demonstration of the Existence of Man before Adam; together with a Study of their Condition, Antiquity, Racial Affinities, and Progressive Dispersion over the Earth. With Charts and other Illustrations. By Alexander Winchell, LL.D., Professor of Geology and Paleontology in the University of Michigan. Chicago: S. C. Griggs & Co. Pp. 500. Price, $3.50.

The views of Dr. Winchell on the subject of preadamites, which he put forth some time ago in a modest pamphlet, to which we drew attention, he has now matured and brought out in a very handsome and richly illustrated volume. We have been more than pleased with a somewhat critical perusal of it. The work is popular in its best sense—attractive in style, clear in exposition, and eminently instructive in its subject matter. Though drawing its facts from wide sources, it is far from being a mere compilation; it is dominated by a large, original purpose, which is kept steadily in view throughout the whole course of its close and trenchant argument.

Dr. Winchell's book has a double interest which should not be overlooked. Though making no claims of this nature, it is yet a valuable exposition of ethnological science, treating instructively a wide range of questions in relation to the origin, distribution, characteristics, and natural history of the human races. These subjects are now of commanding interest. All modern edge converges upon this great human research; and "the proper study of mankind" is now more fruitful of positive and pregnant conclusions than it has ever been before. The theme is itself of intrinsic moment to the students of nature, and is engaging the assiduous attention of talented men in all cultivated nations. From this point of view alone, or as a repository of facts and a lucid exposition of principles, the volume has marked merit, and will do excellent service simply as a popular ethnological manual.

But, while useful as a mere didactic discussion of anthropological questions, the work has an interest of another kind in relation to the special object for which it was written. It is an able contribution to a serious modern controversy, which will bring it into demand beyond the customary circle of scientific and miscellaneous readers. The Church has its traditional ethnology, vaguely assented to by multitudes who have never inquired into the subject, but which is now totally out of harmony with all the results of actual knowledge. It is the old astronomical conflict over again, in a more modern field. Knowledge still advances, and stationary, dogmatic beliefs are left standing as milestones to mark its progress. The prevalent ecclesiastical theory of the origin and history of the human race, which is passively entertained by the great body of orthodox believers, must be discarded or squared with the results of scientific investigation. All fair-minded theologians will recognize the significance of the crisis, and welcome every efficient contribution toward the settlement of the difficulty. Dr. Winchell's work is devoted to this object, and it is executed with such learning and ability that it must at once take rank as an authoritative text-book of the subject. It is not too much to say that it settles the controversy; and all Christian teachers, who have any genuine interest in the adjustment of their beliefs so that they shall harmonize with scientific demonstrations, owe gratitude to the author of this work for the untiring labor that he has bestowed upon the inquiry, and the intrepid spirit in which he has pursued it.

The definite scope of Dr. Winchell's book may be best obtained from his own statement. He says: "The central idea of the work is human preadamitism; all other views presented are subsidiary or collateral. The thesis implies that the characterization of Adam, in the document which has given us the name, is such that the name can not be applied to the first progenitor of the human kind, and that all the collateral statements either involve or permit the derivation of Adam from an older race. But the defense of the thesis does not rest, as it once did, on the purely linguistic interpretation of the Bible. We have now the facts of race-histories, and the discovered laws of animal life, past and present, to summon to the sanction and support of the conclusion. I have not contented myself with the employment of the direct argument, but have attempted to show that the old hypothesis of the descent of the black races from Ham is equally unscriptural and unscientific. Finally, assuming the thesis proved, I have endeavored to gratify the natural and intelligent curiosity which expresses itself in the questions: Who, then, were the first men? Where did they appear, and how long since? How have the races come into existence, and what has been the method of their dispersion over the earth? These questions necessarily lead us to the very borders of the field of recognized facts, and even into the domain of speculation; but I hope I have in most cases presented views which coordinate the facts in a rational conception, if I have not enunciated conclusions which will stand the test of future investigation. I hope, also, that on some of these themes I have presented groupings of the facts and tentative generalizations which will interest the strictly scientific inquirer. In any event, I desire the reader to consider that the defense of the main thesis is not involved in any of the hazard of the speculative suggestions brought forward in the sequel."

It is impossible here to enter into any detail of the views developed in this work; but the reader will get a good idea of the nature and breadth of the discussion by an ennumeration of the subjects treated. Dr. Winchell's chapters are: I. "Some Traditional Beliefs"; II. "Biblical Language"; III. "The Hamites and their Dispersion";IV. "The Semites and their Dispersion"; V. "The Japhetites and their Dispersion"; VI. "Principal Types of Mankind"; VII. "Limited Scope of Biblical Ethnography"; VIII. "A Glance at Hebrew Chronology"; IX. "Elements of Egyptian Chronology"; X. "Prenoachite Races"; XI. "Race Distinctions"; XII. "Biblical Antiquity of Race Distinctions"; XIII. "More Biblical Antiquity of Race Distinctions"; XIV. "Preadamite Races"; XV. "Hamitic Origin of Negroes considered"; XVI. "Negro Inferiority"; XVII. "Do Races degenerate?"; XVIII. "Theological Consequences of Preadamitism"; XIX. "Genealogy of the Black Races"; XX. "Genealogy of the Brown Races"; XXI. "Genealogy of the White Race"; XXII. "The Cradle of Humanity and the Dispersion of the Black Races"; XXIII. "Dispersion of the Asiatic Mongoloids"; XXIV. "Dispersion of the American Mongoloids"; XXV. "Dispersion of the Dravidians and Mediterraneans"; XXVI. "Condition of Primitive Man"; XXVII. "Antiquity of Man"; XXVIII. "The Patriarchal Periods"; XXIX. "Preadamitism in Literature.".

Dr. Winchell's book is got up in elegant form. It contains a large number of beautifully executed illustrations, with some finely worked charts. Press-work and binding are in the best style, doing credit to the enterprise of the publisher and to the proficiency of industrial art in the city where it was produced.

The Life and Writings of Henry Thomas Buckle. By Alfred Henry Huth. New York: D. Appleton & Co. Pp. 502. Price, $2.

Though the career of Buckle was not filled with striking incidents, such as are commonly supposed to be necessary to give interest to biography, it was, nevertheless, of so marked and individual a character that its delineation is certain to prove both instructive and entertaining to a large number of readers. Whatever may be the final verdict as to the value of his intellectual work, Buckle was certainly a power in the thought of his time—a man of force, originality, and independence, so conspicuous as to give significance to the personal particulars of his life. There was much curiosity about him as to who he was, and what had been his history, when he suddenly shot up from obscurity to a brilliant position in literature, and various sketches of him were called forth at the time, although they were meager and unsatisfactory. This volume is the first extended biography of Buckle that has appeared; and, although his intimate friend, Mr. Huth, writes as an ardent admirer, he has endeavored to make a just estimate of his character as a man and a thinker. The volume derives large interest from the considerable correspondence which it reproduces, and which throws much light on the habits, peculiarities, and opinions of the man. Mr. Huth makes an excellent summary of the leading conceptions of Buckle's work, pointing out what seem to be the fundamental conceptions that are due to him, and which it is claimed have largely contributed to place history in the category of the sciences. It may be freely conceded, at any rate, that he did a great service in presenting this view in so captivating a style, and with such a wealth of illustrations, as to make a profound impression upon the popular mind. His "History of Civilization in England" was a liberalizing book, and exerted an educating influence upon multitudes of readers.

Like many other men who have achieved a position and done valuable work, Buckle's early education was out of the common routine which more often cramps than develops. He was, in fact, allowed to do pretty much as he desired with regard to study, and was, therefore, free to follow his own bent. His individuality was but little interfered with, and he was left to the best of all culture—self-culture. The death of his father, when he was but nineteen years of age, left him in easy circumstances, with leisure to pursue his studies in the direction of his chosen life-work. The idea of the history was at first vague in his mind, and grew into more definite shape with advancing years. While yet without experience of the formidable labor before him, he drew up the most ambitious schemes of the history of civilization which he proposed to execute in a series of twenty volumes, but he died at the early age of forty-one, with only a fragment of his great design accomplished. It was a noble purpose to which he consecrated his life, and even in its very partial attainment he made a contribution to historic inquiry which Las been translated into many languages, and influenced in no small degree the thinking of his generation.

Mr. Buckle was, beyond doubt, deficient in many qualities necessary to handle so vast a theme at the period when he entered upon the undertaking. He lacked the scientific preparation for dealing adequately with his task. He was not well equipped with the large ideas which had a bearing upon it, and which were already ripened in leading contemporary minds. When he published his first volume, in 1857, Herbert Spencer had already matured a system of thought, involving the principles of social development, and based upon the new philosophy of evolution. Mr. Buckle was not only unprepared to avail himself of these controlling conceptions, but he resisted some of them as he would not have done if his training had been more thoroughly in the true spirit of science. But he did his work well, and it is fortunate for his memory that the task of delineating his life fell into such excellent hands as those of his present biographer. The book is interestingly written, and will be read with pleasure even by those who know little of the works of the author.

The Fundamental Concepts of Modern Philosophic Thought, critically and historically considered. by Rudolph Eucken, Ph. D., Professor in Jena. Translated by M. Stuart Phelps, Ph. D., with an Introduction by President Porter. New York: D. Appleton & Co. Pp. 304. Price, $1.75.

Professor Eucken's book is not only an important addition to the history of philosophy, but it is an addition that is specially adapted to the requirements of the present time. With great skill and learning, and remarkable clearness of style for a German philosopher, he has traced out the origin and progress of those fundamental conceptions which play so prominent a part in modern controversy, and also of the terms by which those ideas are represented. The author's point of view is tacitly that of evolution, since he undertakes to delineate the philosophical concepts of to-day in their historical formation, and in their transformations, extensions, and shiftings of phraseology. How fitly his discussion answers to the needs of the times will appear from a glance at the contents of his volume, which we subjoin: I. "Subjective and Objective"; II. "Experience"; III. "A Priori—Innate"; IV. "Immanent (Cosmic)"; V. "Monism, Dualism"; VI. "Law"; VII. "Development"; VIII. "Primary Concepts of Causation (Mechanic—Organic) (Ideology)"; IX. "Culture"; X. "Individuality"; XI. "Humanity"; XII. "Realism—Idealism"; XIII. "Optimism—Pessimism"; XIV. "Conclusion."

It will be seen from this enumeration of subjects that the work covers a large field of contemporary interest, both scientific and speculative; but it must not be supposed that the author engages in the positive discussion of these topics as they are now treated by systematic controversialists. Into the present conflict of thought, as the representative of any school, he does not enter; and hardly a great name in the science or philosophy of the present age appears in his pages. But, taking the leading conceptions that are now of special interest in literary and philosophical circles, and which, "proceeding from philosophy and the general scientific development, have become a power in life as a whole," he subjects them to such historical analysis and criticism as will prove serviceable to the modern student.

Dr. Porter recommended this volume for translation, and has at once adopted it as a text-book in Yale College. He contributes to it a brief Introductory Essay, commending it to English readers as eminently suited to the times. "He can say with an assured confidence that there are few books within his knowledge which are better fitted to aid the student who wishes to acquaint himself with the course of modern speculation and scientific thinking, and to form an intelligent estimate of most of the current theories."

Chemistry, Inorganic and Organic, with Experiments. By Charles Loudon Bloxam, Professor of Chemistry in King's College, London. Fourth edition. Philadelphia: Presley Blakiston. Pp. 688. Price, $4.

Bloxam's "Chemistry" has had an excellent reputation as a practical manual for several years; and the present revised edition brings it fairly up to date. The author remarks that some alterations have been made in the present edition, to bring the theoretical portion into harmony with modern views; but its treatment of chemical theory, although good, is not the strongest feature of the work. Its first claim to consideration, and an important one, is the great number of simple illustrative experiments that it pictures and describes. There is a great profusion of cuts representing apparatus and manipulations, which will be most serviceable to lecturers and chemical workers. Another point of special interest in the work is the prominence it gives to the subject of manufacturing processes. The principles involved in the most important of these are very clearly and fully explained. Professor Bloxam has been long associated with the Government military establishment at Woolwich, and has made many investigations into the properties of explosives. The student will accordingly find that more than usual attention is given to the chemistry of the various substances employed in warlike stores.

Pharmacographia: A History of the Principal Drugs of Vegetable Origin met with in Great Britain and British India. By Friedrich Flückiger, Ph. D., Professor in the University of Strasburg, and Dan. Hanbury, F. R. S. Second edition. London: Macmillan & Co. (22 Bond Street, New York). 1879. 8vo, pp. 803. Price, $5.

The second edition of this master-work, first published in 1874 and now revised by the only surviving author, Professor Flückiger, has been long looked for, and is received everywhere with due appreciation. Exceeding the first edition by one hundred pages, it is identical with it in scope and arrangement. The drugs are classified according to their botanical origin, and the natural orders arranged in accordance with the system of De Candolle. The Latin name, with the principal synonyms of each drug, is followed by their English, German, and French names. The main sections of each article treated are: "Botanical Origin," "History," "Collection," "Description," "Microscopic Structure," "Chemical Composition," "Production and Commerce," "Uses, Adulterations, and Substitutes."

The section "Botanical Origin" enumerates the recognized botanical name, together with the synonyms, the habit, and locality of the plant yielding the drug; all strictly botanical descriptions are, very properly, almost entirely excluded. The section "History" is particularly unique and interesting; it gives an historical account of each drug from the time when it was first used, traces its employment by different nations, its influence upon commerce, its value at different periods, cultivation, etc. This is followed by an account of the "Collection" of the drug, and its manufacture for the market, in all such cases where this information is likely to explain its physical properties, which are described under the section "Description," and followed by "Microscopical Structure." In the section "Chemical Composition" the views of different investigators have been carefully sifted, and the results of the most recent researches given. Interesting and valuable information and statistics are found in the division "Production, Cultivation, and Commerce." The section "Adulteration and Substitutes" is brief, since the surest way to detect adulterations, of whatever kind, is to be found in a sufficient familiarity with the leading characteristics of the pure article.

The value of all this information is much enhanced and made specially attractive and interesting by copious reference to original sources, covering a wide and varied scope of both old and recent literature.

If there is any desideratum which the very value of the work suggests, it is the want of illustrations in the sections of "Description" and "Microscopical Structure," for which the authors thus far refer to several standard works, mainly German ones, and which desideratum has been well met in the French translation of the work by Professor de Lanessau, which contains more than three hundred well-executed cuts.

An Introduction to the Philosophy of Religion. By John Caird, D. D. New York: Macmillan & Co. Pp. 358. Price, $3.

A disquisition upon this subject by the Principal of Glasgow University is sure to have a wide welcome. Dr. Caird is well known as one of the clearest and soundest thinkers of the conservative school of theology. In calm, philosophic temper, in liberality of thought, and in acuteness and force of reasoning, this work is far above the class to which it belongs, and of which we have had many examples within the last few years. The progress of science gives Dr. Caird no anxiety. He cordially accepts its advanced conclusions, and is not concerned about any modification they may necessitate in the old formulas of belief. He perceives that the issues in which religion is essentially involved lie deep in the foundations of psychology, in the nature of knowledge, and the limits of the knowing faculties; and he accordingly addresses himself to a close, logical examination of this subject. There is nothing flippant in his treatment of it; no bad temper, no abuse, no invective, nothing for controversial effect. He sets an example which many of his brethren would be wise to follow, and we accordingly commend his work.

The Watering-Places of Germany, Austria, and Switzerland, Climatic Resorts, Sanitariums, etc. By Edward Gutmann, M. D. New York: D. Appleton & Co. 1880. Pp. 331. 2.50.

The author and publishers of this book deserve the thanks of all those who seek health and recreation at the European watering-places. In language easily understood by all, Dr. Gutmann, who is a resident of New York, has described the medicinal properties of the different waters, whether for bathing or drinking, so that the intelligent reader may clearly perceive not only why he is to visit a particular watering place, but also how he is to enter upon his treatment when he arrives there, and in what way the restoration of health may be most certainly and quickly attained. Nor has the very important matter of diet and manner of living at the watering-places been forgotten, and ere the patient arrives at his destination he can, by the perusal of this book, which is entertaining as well as instructive, acquaint himself with those rules of life and diet which long experience has shown to be so necessary to insure the full benefit of the treatment. In fine, the stranger is made so well acquainted with the place he is to visit, with its history, its baths and springs, its mode of life, and even its appearance, that he feels himself soon at home, and free from that disagreeable sensation so often experienced by the stranger in a strange land. There is a map on which all the different places mentioned in the book are clearly indicated, as well as the routes by which they may be reached from any of the great European cities, or from each other. Each bathing and watering place has also the character of its springs indicated by a colored line, so that the traveler may see at a glance the nature and properties of the waters of any given place: for instance, the blue line indicates the alkaline; the green, the saline; the yellow, the sulphur; the orange, the iron; the brown, the earthy; and the red, the indifferent waters; while the climatic resorts are indicated by a violet line. In short, with this book in hand, the seeker after health may start from New York, London, or Paris, and, with no other guide, reach easily and safely the proper resort for his ailment, and upon his arrival there be fully prepared to enter intelligently upon the course of diet and treatment. There is a comparative table of the different moneys in use in the countries to be visited, as well as a carefully compiled analysis of the different waters. A most useful feature, too, is the therapeutical recapitulation, in which the author briefly indicates the special uses of the different waters, and cures for the alleviation of the ailments for which they have gained a well-earned reputation. The book is handsomely illustrated by engravings of the principal places mentioned, and is a credit to its publishers as well as to its author, who brings to his work the knowledge gained by years of travel and experience, and an entire familiarity with the places of which he treats. To the physician who has patients to send abroad the book is a valuable aid, and to the invalid seeking health at the European spas it is indispensable.

Life: Its True Genesis. By B. W. Wright. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons. Pp. 298. Price, $1.50.

A vigorous orthodox polemic against the "materialist school." It contains much ingenious criticism of modern scientific doctrines, but we are unable to see that it throws much new light on the "True Genesis of Life." It is much easier to show the folly and absurdity of the views put forward by Darwin, Spencer, and others, than to bring forward new theories that shall not be open to criticism.

A Handbook of Hygiene and Sanitary Science. By George Wilson, M. A., M. D., and C. M. (Edin.), F. C. S. Fourth edition. Philadelphia: Lindsay & Blakiston. 1880. Pp. 458. Price, $2.75.

In issuing a fourth edition of his valuable work on hygiene, Dr. Wilson has carefully revised the book and enlarged it by some new matter. A new introductory chapter, giving a brief sketch of the progress of sanitary science, has been substituted for that in the previous editions. The work considers a large number of subjects, giving the latest and most authentic knowledge in an interesting form.

The subject of food is considered very fully with regard to its function, constituents, nutritive value, relation to work, and its effects upon public health when it is insufficient or unwholesome. Under this head are also considered the value of preserved foods, the comparative value of different kinds of food, and the construction of dietaries. Air, its impurities and their effects upon public health; the conditions of warming and ventilation; water and its impurities, sources of pollution and modes of detection; the removal of sewage, its purification and utilization; together with a large amount of other matter bearing upon the general question of healthy living, make up the contents of this very excellent treatise. Dealing with subjects of such prime importance to the family, it should find a place in every household.

A Handbook of Double Stars. With a Catalogue of Twelve Hundred Double Stars, and Extensive Lists of Measures. With Additional Notes bringing the Measures up to 1879. For the Use of Amateurs. By Edward Crossley, F. R. A. S.; Joseph Gledhill, F. R. A. S.; and James M. Wilson, M. A., F. R. A. S. New York: Macmillan & Co. Pp. 464. Price, $6.

This work is intended to facilitate the labors of future students of sidereal astronomy, by supplying the materials for the study of double stars in a convenient form, and as complete as its painstaking authors could make it. It has arisen out of their wants as students, as there does not exist any other book which gives information sufficiently detailed to be of value to any one who seriously takes up this study. The student must hunt through scores and hundreds of volumes if he wishes to get an accurate and complete list of the previous measures of any particular double star. These measures are scattered up and down the astronomical periodicals of all nations; and if he desires to know with what instruments, with what apertures, and what micrometers, these measures were taken, a fresh research awaits him. And, if he proceeds to attempt an orbit, he will fail unless he is a tolerably expert mathematician, for want of sufficient guidance and detail in the various mathematical papers and pamphlets that have been devoted to this subject. The authors express the hope that this manual will be of use in guiding amateurs in their work, in pointing out what stars are of especial interest, what stars have had few or conflicting measures taken of them, at what times observations of certain stars are especially needful, and what stars have been so frequently and satisfactorily measured that for the present they need no attention. The work is appropriate to the present time, as there has been great activity in this field of observation during the last six or seven years. It embodies the results of an immense amount of careful and accurate labor, and can not fail to be of much use to practical astronomers.

Pay Hospitals and Paying Wards throughout the world. by Henry C. Burdett. Philadelphia: Presley Blakiston. 1880. Pp. 169. Price, $2.25.

This is a consideration of the hospital systems of the world, with a view to showing the advantages of pay hospitals and pay wards in general charitable hospitals. In England the system is to have only charitable hospitals, and this results in depriving large classes of the great advantages of a well-appointed medical institution, while it at the same time allows many, who can afford to pay for treatment, to obtain it gratuitously. Mr. Burdett states that from thirty to sixty per cent, of those who receive out-door relief are not fit subjects for charity, while a smaller but still considerable percentage of those who are treated within a hospital belong to the same class. He thinks that a stricter inquiry should be made into the circumstances of those applying for charitable relief, confining the advantages of such institutions to the really needy; and that for the accommodation of all others pay wards, or separate pay institutions, should be provided. He makes a review of the hospitals working successfully on this basis in other countries, to show both the feasibility and desirability of such institutions in England.

A Key to Ghostism: Science and Art unlock its Mysteries. By Rev. Thomas Mitchell. New York: S. R. Wells & Co. Pp. 249. Price, 1.25.

The author of this volume professes to discredit the supernatural element of modern spiritualism, and to explain all its effects naturally. He holds to clairvoyance and animal magnetism, and accounts for everything of the kind by those agencies. There does not seem to be much gained. Of the science of the book we can not speak very highly. A story is told of a woman suspended horizontally in mid-air, with her head resting upon her arm, and her arm resting upon the the top of a rod. "The lady weighs about one hundred and thirty pounds; and, while thus suspended, the attraction of gravitation is completely overcome. Were the rod upon which her head rests fastened into a scale, she would not probably weigh twenty pounds." Indeed, it is declared that all supports have been removed, "and she left hanging in the air without touching an object; in which case, of course, she would weigh nothing. . . .

"The science of this phenomenon we have already explained. Gravity consists in the attraction of the atmosphere to the earth, and by it. This is called atmospheric pressure, which is fifteen pounds to the square inch. The bulk and density of the earth being so much greater than those of the atmosphere, give all bodies on its surface this superior attractive force to the earth. . . .

"In order to suspend this woman, it was necessary to charge her with electricity or magnetism, fifteen times higher than that of her normal condition. This makes her as positive as the earth itself; and, as two positives resist each other, she hangs in the air just where she is placed. Now, if she should be charged higher than this degree, say sixteen pounds to the square inch, she would, of herself, without a touch, rise from the floor to the ceiling, or to that locality where she would be in equilibrium with the attractive force of the air; and, until demagnetized, would there remain suspended."

And of such is the "Key to Ghostism."

Common Mind Troubles, and the Secret of a Clear Head. By G. Mortimer-Granville, M. D. Edited, with Additions, by an American Physician. Philadelphia: D. S. Brinton. Pp. 185. Price, $1.

This volume is a reprint of two English primers dealing with kindred topics, which may very well go together. There are many valuable hints in it regarding the care and management of the mind, but the author seems foolishly nervous lest somebody should take him for a materialist. As the main practical facts are independent of speculation, why should he take pains to put himself forward as a theorist and a partisan? Dr. Granville, however, has given much attention to the subject of mental diseases.

Dwelling-Houses: their Sanitary Construction and Arrangement. By Professor W. H. Corfield, A. M., M. D. Van Nostrand's Science Series. New York: D. Van Nostrand. Pp. 156. Price, 50 cents.

This is a small volume of lectures reprinted from "Van Nostrand's Magazine," which will well repay attention to those concerned about the hygiene of house-construction. The subject is of deep and increasing interest; Professor Corfield is an authority upon it, and he is content with a plain, common-sense statement of the subject. His lectures refer to English practice, but the principles he expounds are applicable everywhere, and if followed in this country would be productive of much advantage both private and public.

Our Homes. By Henry Hartshorne, A. M., M. D. Philadelphia: Presley Blakiston. 1880. Pp. 149. Price, 50 cents.

This is one of the series of "American Health Primers" and is an excellent and concise statement of the conditions to be fulfilled in order to have a healthy home. The subjects considered are the site, the construction of the house, the means of lighting, warming, and ventilating it, and the water supply, drainage, and disinfection. There are also short chapters upon the population that, from a health point of view, should live in any given* space, and on workingmen's homes.


The Microscopical Investigations of the Havana Yellow Fever Commission. By George M. Sternberg, Surgeon U. S. A. New Orleans: S. Graham, Printer. 1880. Pp. 7.

Report of the State Engineer of California. Sacramento: State Printing-Office. 1880. Pp. 518.

Modern Abuse of Gynæcology. By Clifton E. Wing, M. D. Boston. Pp. 8.

Effects of Mixture of Races on Human Progress. By Professor Joseph Le Conte. Reprint from "Berkeley Quarterly." 1880. Pp. 24.

Quarterly Report of the Chief of the Bureau of Statistics for the Three Months ending December 31, 1879. Washington: Government Printing-Office. 1880.

The Sulcus Rolando and Intelligence. By S. V. Clevenger, M. D. Illustrated. Chicago: J. J. Spalding & Co., Printers. 1880. Pp. 23.

Interstate Extradition. By J. M. Kerr. St. Louis: G. J. Jones & Co. 1880. Pp. 22.

Astronomical Approximations. IV. Nodal Estimation of the Velocity of Light. V. Cometary Paraboloids. VI. Cosmical Determination of Joule's Equivalent. By Pliny E. Chase, LL. D., Professor of Philosophy in Haverford College.

Caries of the Ankles in Children. By V. P. Gibney, A. M, M. D. New York: W. Wood & Co. 1880. Pp. 26.

The "North American Entomologist." Edited by Professor A. R. Grote. An Illustrated Monthly for the Use of Students and Agriculturists. Buffalo, N.Y.: Reinecke & Zesch. Pp. 8. $2 a year.

The Masterful Ego, or Mind considered from a Purely Physical Standpoint. By W. D. Wilson. Ithaca: Andrus & Church. 1880. Pp. 8.

The Recession of the Falls of St. Anthony. By N. H. Winchell. State Geologist of Minnesota. Pp. 16. Illustrated.

Address of Professor S. P. Langley, Vice President Section A., before the American Association for the Advancement of Science, at the Saratoga Meeting, August, 1879. Salem, 1879. Pp. 15.

Cerebral Topography. By S. V. Clevenger, M. D. Reprint from "Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease," October, 1879. Pp. 27.

Report of the Board of Commissioners of the Seventh Cincinnati Industrial Exhibition, 1879. Cincinnati: "Times" Printing Establishment. 1880. Pp. 408.

Proceedings of the Davenport Academy of Natural Sciences. Vol. II., Part II. July. 1877 December, 1878. Davenport, Iowa: J. D. Putnam. 1880. Pp. 356. Illustrated.

Twelfth and Thirteenth Annual Reports of the Trustees of the Peabody Museum of American Archæology and Ethnology. Vol. II. Nos. 3 and 4. Cambridge, 1880. Pp. 311. Illustrated.

The Coming Crisis. San Francisco: A. L. Bancroft & Co., Printers. 1879. Pp. 136. $1.

Problems in Relation to the Prevention of Disease. By J. R. Weist, A. M., M. D. Annual Address of the President of the Indiana State Medical Society. Richmond, Indiana: Telegraph Printing Co. 1880. Pp. 25.

Our Home: a Monthly Magazine. New York: George H. Bladworth & Co. No. 1. January, 1880. Pp. 28. $1 a year.

Heveenoid; the Rubber of the Future. By H. A. Mott, Jr., Ph. D. New York; Trow Printing Company. 1880. Pp. 13.

Eighth Annual Report of the Directors of the Zoölogical Society of Philadelphia. Philadelphia. 1880. Illustrated. Pp. 37.

Thirteen Papers in Support of Mr. Helper's Scheme for constructing a Longitudinal Double Track Steel Railway through North and Central and South America. St. Louis: W. S. Bryan. 1880. Pp. 24.

Hygienic and Therapeutic Relations of House Plants. By J. M. Anders, M. D., Ph. D. Philadelphia: Printed by J. B. Lippincott & Co. 1880. Pp. 16.

"On the Ghosts in Rutherford's Diffraction Spectra," and "A Quincuncial Projection of the Sphere." By C. S. Peirce. Reprinted from the "American Journal of Mathematics," Vol. II. 1879.

"Note on the Theory of the Economy of Research," and "Measurements of Gravity at Initial Stations in America and Europe." By C. S. Peirce. Appendices Nos. 14 and 15 to "United States Coast Survey Report of 1876." Washington: Government Printing-Office. 1879.

Multiplication and Division Table, containing the Products of Numbers between 1 and 100. For the Use of Accountants, Computers, and Teachers. By Leonard Waldo, S. D. New York: John Wiley & Sons. 1880.

The Management of Children in Sickness and in Health. By Anne M. Hale, M. D. Philadelphia: Presley Blakiston. 1880. Pp. 110. 50 cents.

The Morals of Evolution. By M. J. Savage. Boston: George H. Ellis. 1880. Pp. 191. $1.

The Fabulous Gods denounced in the Bible. Translated from Selden's "Syrian Deities." By W. A. Hauser. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott & Co. 1880. Pp. 178. $1.25.

The Metric System. By D. Beach. Jr. . and E. A. Gibbens. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons. 1880. Pp. 62. 75 cents.

The Throat and its Functions. By Louis Elsberg, A. M., M.D. Illustrated. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons. 1880. Pp. 60. $1.

Eminent Israelites of the Nineteenth Century. By Henry S. Morais. Philadelphia: Edward Stern & Co. 1880. Pp. 371. $2.

Health and Healthy Homes: A Guide to Domestic Hygiene. By George Wilson, M. A. . M. D. With Notes and Additions, by G. J. Richardson, M.D Philadelphia: Presley Blakiston. 1880. Pp. 307. $1.50.

The Field Engineer: A Handy-Book of Practice in the Survey, Location, and Track-work of Railroads. By William F. Shunk, C. E. New York: D. Van Nostrand. 1880. Pp. 325. $2.50.

Hints and Helps for National Guardsmen. By Colonel William H. Roberts. New York: D. Van Nostrand. 1880. Pp. 228. $1.25.

A Practical Treatise on Sea-Sickness. By George M. Beard. M. D. New York: E. B. Treat, 1880 Pp. 74. 50 cents.

Water Analysis for Sanitary Purposes. By F. Frankland. F. R. S. Philadelphia: Presley Blakiston. 1880. Pp. 149. $1.

The Hysterical Element in Orthopædic Surgery. By Newton M. Shaffer, M. D. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons. 1880. Pp. 66. $1.