Popular Science Monthly/Volume 17/June 1880/Literary Notices

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Chemical Exercises in Qualitative Analysis. For Ordinary Schools. By George W. Rains, M.D., Professor of Chemistry in the University of Georgia, New York: D. Appleton & Co. Pp. 59. Price, 50 cents.

Under this modest title, and within very moderate limits, Professor Rains has made a very considerable contribution to sound scientific education. He has had much experience in introducing boys into chemistry, and the course of exercises here worked out he has long verified in practice. His object is to bring the minds of pupils into immediate contact with Nature, and so he puts them at work, at the outset, to find out by trial the chemical properties of substances. His little book provides for no recitations, but for elementary chemical work. The learner is not told; he finds out the properties and reactions of bodies by testing them and by experiment. His progress consists in solving problems, and making what are to him a course of new discoveries. The book is based upon the idea that mere book-knowledge in chemistry is a sham and an imposture.

To facilitate the mode of study adopted, Professor Rains has devised an ingenious and most convenient portable laboratory, to which his manual is adapted, and which will be a great help to students, whether working alone or in school-classes under a teacher. We will give a drawing next month of this useful contrivance, and describe Professor Rains's method more fully.

Henry's Contribution to the Electro-Magnetic Telegraph. With an Account of the Origin and Development of Professor Morse's Invention. By William B. Taylor. Reprinted from the Smithsonian Report for 1878. Washington: Government Printing-Office. 1879.

The name of Professor Henry is not among those who are associated in the popular mind with the electric telegraph, and yet without his discoveries the electro-magnetic telegraph of to-day could not exist. Though, in making his electric investigations, he was not working with the aim to construct a telegraph, he yet clearly perceived the bearing of his results upon such a system of communication. The telegraph has been a growth to which many minds contributed, and it is desirable that the labors of each of the contributors should be placed in such relations as to show their comparative value. This Professor Taylor has done in the above pamphlet, in which the remarkable investigations of Professor Henry receive a recognition that their importance deserves. Professor Taylor reviews the attempts to operate a telegraph by frictional electricity, then by galvanism, by galvano-magnetism, and finally by means of the electro-magnet. Professor Taylor thus states the contribution of Professor Henry to the solution of the problem: He has, he says, "the preëminent claim to popular gratitude of having first practically worked out the differing functions of two entirely different kinds of electro-magnet: the one surrounded with numerous coils of no great length, designated by him the 'quantity' magnet, the other surrounded with a continuous coil of very great length, designated by him the 'intensity' magnet. The former and more powerful system, least affected by an 'intensity' battery of many pairs, was shown to be most responsive to a single galvanic element: the latter and feebler system, least influenced by a single pair, was shown to be most excited by a battery of numerous elements; but at the same time was shown to have the singular capability (never before suspected nor imagined) of subtile excitation from a distant source. Here for the first time is experimentally established the important principle that there must be a proportion between the aggregate internal resistance of the battery and the whole external resistance of the conjunctive wire or conducting circuit; with the very important practical consequence that, by combining with an 'intensity' magnet of a single extended fine coil an 'intensity' battery of many small pairs, its electro-motive force enables a very long conductor to be employed without sensible diminution of the effect." These investigations of Henry were made from 1829 to 1831. They made the magnetic telegraph, which the English physicist, Barlow, noticing the rapid diminution in the intensity of the current, had some years before declared impracticable, possible. All later inventors and investigators in telegraphy have had to build upon these investigations. Professor Taylor, in reviewing the work of Morse, points out that he was greatly delayed in his work and committed many errors from ignorance of the existing state of electrical knowledge, and especially because of his ignorance of the labors of Professor Henry. He further points out that the work for which Morse gets credit is, in all its more important features, the work of another man—Alfred Vail, who, with Dr. Gale, was associated with Morse in perfecting the invention. Professor Taylor states that the Morse alphabet and the instrument that was found in practice to work it were both the sole invention of Mr. Vail. The pamphlet will be found an interesting review of this important invention, containing much hitherto unpublished, and giving such recognition of the labors of those contributing to it as their importance deserves. Professor Taylor was for many years connected with the Patent Office, and has therefore had excellent opportunities of informing himself on the subject.

History of Political Economy in Europe. By Jérôme-Adolphe Blanqui. Translated from the fourth French edition, by Emily J. Leonard. With a Preface by David A. Wells. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons. 1880. Pp. 562. Price, $3.50.

This is the first appearance in English of the celebrated work of the French economist Blanqui. It is somewhat remarkable that a translation has not before been made, as there is no English work covering the same ground, and as M. Blanqui has succeeded in putting in a moderate compass a large amount of information concerning economic theory and practice, and putting it, moreover, in a way that will prove very attractive to the general reader. Though it is more than forty years since the book was first published, it has lost little or none of its interest for the present, and its translator has conferred a favor upon the public by her excellent rendering of the original. M. Blanqui was the pupil of J. B. Say, and, on the death of that economist in 1883, he succeeded him in the professorship of Political Economy in the Conservatory of Arts and Trades. In his discussion of social and economic questions, the humanitarian element is predominant, and the great value of political economy to him was that it consisted of a body of most beneficent truths which held out the promise and pointed the way to an increasing betterment of the condition of all classes. He had, therefore, a warm interest in all questions concerning the improvement of the industrial classes, and regarded with sympathy the various schemes, rife in his time, for furthering their welfare. With great admiration for the school of English economists, and according to them the honor of placing the science upon a true foundation, he yet protested that their formulas were too rigid, and that they had not taken account of the grain of truth that, along with many vagaries, was to be found in the doctrines of various social sects.

In his view, political economy did not begin when men first carefully studied the phenomena of wealth, and endeavored to elaborate a body of doctrine, but it began much earlier. Men became political economists when they began to exchange the products of their labor, and when they commenced to exercise foresight in providing for their material needs. Since then economic phenomena, as well as the theories held concerning them, have slowly advanced—the one in complexity and variety, the other in a more perfect comprehension of the relations of the facts. M. Blanqui therefore begins his work with a consideration of the political economy of the Greeks and Romans, and traces it onward through the middle ages to the time at which he wrote. In this survey he notices the importance attached by the Greeks to financial matters, the contempt of the Romans for labor and commerce, the influence of Christianity, which he says changed the basis of civilization from slavery to freedom, the change impressed on European life by the influx of barbarians, the rise of the feudal system, and the influence of the Crusades in giving an impetus to commerce. In considering the rise of credit and the institution of banks, he points out the value of the services of the Jews, to whom finance owes so much.

Modern commerce properly begins with the rise of the Italian commercial cities, and thence onward it moves steadily if slowly. Its theory is the mercantile system. Nations only grow rich by despoiling each other, and money is alone riches. This theory, once universal, has not even yet disappeared. It has survived the clearest demonstrations of its falsity, and influences to-day much of the speculation and legislation upon economical matters. The first important school to combat it, and to lead the way to a true theory of wealth, was that of the Economists, which arose in France just after the disastrous failure of Law's scheme. Quesnay was one of its founders and most distinguished representatives. It found prepared for it a soil in which it readily took root and flourished. Law's failure had produced an entire revulsion in French sentiment. "People," says M. Blanqui, "had for some time deemed money to be wealth in an especial sense; . . . there were henceforth no true riches but land." The Economists came preaching this doctrine. To them agriculture was the only productive occupation. "Manufacturers, traders, workmen, were all paid clerks of agriculture, which was the sovereign creator and dispenser of all wealth." Landed proprietors were rightly preëminent over all other classes. They reaped all wealth; they should, therefore, pay all taxes. Hence the Economists would have but one tax—that upon land. And the same reasoning led them to entire freedom of trade. Able men rallied to the support of the new views, and there gradually grew up a body of statesmen imbued with them, one of whom, Turgot, was to attempt to carry their formulas into practice.

The Economists were mistaken. They failed to see that wealth can be created by labor; they were blinded by their doctrine of the importance of land, but they have rendered great service. "Their books are forgotten; but their doctrines have germinated like a good seed, and the precepts which they taught have made the circuit of the world, freed the industrial arts, restored agriculture, and prepared the way for commercial liberty." It was reserved for Adam Smith to see clearly what the Economists saw dimly, to correct their errors by a true analysis of the phenomena of wealth, and to place economics on an enduring foundation. He restored to labor the position of a creator of wealth denied it by the Economists, and he first pointed out clearly the results of the division of labor. He placed commercial liberty upon an impregnable basis, and showed how private interest freed from restrictions works for the best welfare of the individual and society. Great as was his genius, "Adam Smith did not, however, have the honor of creating political economy at a single stroke"; but he laid the foundation upon which his successors securely built. The Economists had given to land too prominent a place; he gave it to labor. This his followers corrected: they adjusted the parts, recognized the place of capital, and developed the science symmetrically. But they all failed to recognize sufficiently the welfare of the worker. They all regarded him too exclusively in the light of an economic machine for the production of wealth. This error the economists of the French school have corrected. They have insisted that the value of increase of wealth is to be unceasingly judged by what it brings to the workers, and they withhold their admiration if the thing it brings be not good: "We are to-day obliged to seek a regulator, and to put a curb on those gigantic instruments of production which feed and which starve men, which clothe and which despoil them, which relieve and which crush them. The question is no longer, as in the time of Smith, exclusively that of accelerating production: the latter must henceforth be governed and restricted within wise limits. The question is no longer of absolute wealth, but of relative wealth; humanity demands that masses of men who will not profit thereby be no longer sacrificed to the progress of public opulence. Thus decree the eternal laws of justice and morality, too long disregarded in the social distribution of the profits and the labors; and we will no longer consent to give the name of wealth save to the sum of the national product equitably distributed between all the producers. Such is the French school of political economy to which we profess to belong, and its ideas will make the circuit of the world."

The above will, perhaps, give some idea of the general spirit and drift of M. Blanqui's work in viewing social questions, but no one at all interested in such questions will fail to read one of the most fascinating economic works ever published.

A Practical Treatise on Nervous Exhaustion; its Symptoms, Nature, Sequences, Treatment. By George M. Beard, A.M., M.D. New. York: William Wood & Co. Pp. 198.

Dr. Beard's work deals not only with a very important subject to which he has paid long professional attention, but to a subject of prominent and painful interest in this country. Nervous exhaustion, or, as he names it, Neurasthenia, he declares to be at once the most frequent, the most interesting, and most neglected disease of modern times; while the family of disorders that have been hitherto grouped together under the name of "general debility," "nervous prostration," "nervous debility," "spinal weakness," "spinal irritation," etc., are of comparatively recent development and abound especially in the Northern and Eastern parts of the United States. The author thus states his purpose in the preparation of the book: "To describe with thoroughness if not exhaustively the symptoms of neurasthenia—those hitherto assigned to the other affections or regarded as special and distinct diseases themselves; to show their relation and interdependence; to distinguish them from the oftentimes closely resembling symptoms of organic disease on the one hand, and the symptoms of hysteria and hypochondria on the other hand; to unify and harmonize the complex developments and manifestations of this malady; to indicate its pathology and rationale, and. trace out in detail its prognosis, sequences, treatment, and hygiene—this is the task I have undertaken in the present volume."

Dr. Beard affirms that there has been a very important progress in the treatment of these affections during the last ten years. "In no department of therapeutics has there been even in this most active age so rapid and successful advance as in the management of nervous exhaustion, and the diseases that result from and are related to it; and hence a subject, the interest of which was originally scientific and philosophic, is now of direct practical and personal concern not only to specialists in the diseases of the nervous system, but to practitioners and to sufferers everywhere."

As the work is chiefly practical and designed for the use of the medical profession in treating the disease as it is found, the question of the causes which lead to it is not taken up. This is a very important branch of the subject, which requires to be itself separately and fully dealt with. Dr. Beard accordingly has in preparation and nearly completed a work on American nervousness, intended to be supplementary to the present treatise, which will discuss both the causes and the consequences of the rise and increase of neurasthenia, and the general nerve sensitiveness which is a kindred phenomenon in this artificial and excitable age. The author remarks that a philosophic and thorough analysis of American nervousness must be a contribution to sociology involving many problems of race, climate, institutions, and social customs.

Science Primers: Introductory. By Professor T. H. Huxley. New York: D. Appleton & Co. 1880. Pp. 94. Price, 45 cents.

The appearance of this little volume has been waited for with eager interest and much impatience, owing to the popularity of the science series, to which it is a stepping-stone, and to the celebrity of its author. Much was expected, and the general expectations will not be disappointed. In the happy selection of its subjects, in the felicity of its illustrations, in the admirable clearness and simplicity of its style, and in the instructiveness of the lessons it inculcates, Professor Huxley's Primer is quite unrivaled, and it will be read by thousands with equal pleasure and advantage. It aims to convey a general idea of the nature and importance of scientific knowledge, to explain science as a method of thinking, to show its practical uses, and to exemplify its systematic bearings and various aspects by means of the most familiar objects. The first division of twenty pages, under the head of "Nature and Science," treats of Causes and Effects, the Properties and Powers of Bodies, what is meant by the Order of Nature and the Laws of Nature, and how scientific knowledge is obtained. The second division is devoted to "Material Objects," and sixty pages are given to Mineral Bodies. Water is chosen as a representative natural object, and its remarkable properties are explained step by step, so as to bring out the fundamental physical principles involved in the three states of matter. Ten pages are then given to the properties of Living Bodies, and the Primer closes with a few observations on immaterial objects.

We refer elsewhere to the series of works to which this book belongs, with a view of guarding against their misemployment in schools.

Health and Health Resorts. By John Wilson, M. D. Philadelphia: Porter & Coates.

Dr. Wilson is of the opinion that many erroneous notions prevail among the Americans as to the value of health resorts, especially those of foreign countries, and he has therefore in this work undertaken to state the value of such places and the conditions that must be fulfilled as to diet, treatment, etc., in order to obtain their benefits. After a short consideration of health and disease, he considers the general principles of regimen for invalids at health-stations, and the therapeutical action of mineral waters, their use and abuse, and the value of baths. He also considers the best winter-stations for consumptives and a number of the foreign mineral springs. Dr. Wilson insists that it is not necessary to go away from this country to get all the advantages of foreign springs, as there is scarcely one of these that has not its counterpart in this country.

Memorandum in regard to Instruction in the Mechanic Arts. By Edward Atkinson. Prepared at the Request of the Committee on Prisons of the Massachusetts Legislature.

In this memorandum Mr. Atkinson urges the adoption of such a course of instruction with actual practice in workshops, in the reformatory institutions of the State, as has been carried on for some years in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The success of this system has been so gratifying at this institute that Mr. Atkinson believes it can not but be of great value in prisons and reformatories. He submits a plan of a workshop to accommodate four hundred pupils, and arranged to give instruction in carpentry, blacksmithing, foundry-work, vise-work, brazing, wood-and metal-working and finishing. The only objection Mr. Atkinson finds to his plan is in the fact that graduates of such reformatories will be much better qualified to earn a living than most of the graduates of the common, and some of the graduates of the higher, institutions of learning.

The Cotton-Worm. By Charles V. Riley, M. A., Ph. D. Washington: Government Printing-Office. 1880.

This is the third bulletin issued by the United States Entomological Commission, and is devoted to a summary of the natural history of the cotton-worm, with an account of its enemies and the best means of controlling it. Illustrations are given of the worm and its enemies, as well as of the various machines designed to be used in exterminating it. Much valuable information will be found in it of service to the planter, both as to the peculiarities of the worm, and on the best means of protection. The bulletin is sent to those desiring it, upon application to Washington.

A Subject-Index to the Publications of the United States Natal Observatory from 1845 to 1875. By Edward S. Holden. Washington: Government Printing-Office. 1879.

Professor Holden states that the twenty-two volumes issued from this observatory from 1845 to 1875 contain, on the average, five hundred pages each of valuable observations and discussions, which it is desirable should be easily accessible. He has, therefore, undertaken this very excellent index. It is in the form of a quarto, of seventy-two pages, in paper binding.

Report on the Lands of the Arid Regions of the United States. With Maps. By J. W. Powell. Second edition. Washington: Government Printing-Office. 1879.

In the first three chapters of this volume Major Powell treats of the physical characteristics of the arid regions of the United States, and the rainfall of the Western portions of the country. Mr. G. R. Gilbert has four chapters on the water-supply, on irrigable lands, and on the physical features of the lands of Utah. There is also a paper by Captain C. E. Dutton on the irrigable lands of the valley of the Frazer River; and one by Professor A. H. Thompson on the irrigable lands of that portion of Utah drained by the Colorado River and its tributaries. The concluding chapter of the volume, by Willis Drummond, Jr., discusses the question of land grants as aids to internal improvement. The interest and value of the report are shown by the fact that the first edition was soon exhausted, and a second one called for.

Studies in Fermentation; the Diseases of Beer; their Causes and the Means of preventing Them. By L. Pasteur, Member of the Institute of France, the Royal Society of London, etc. Translated by Frank Faulkner and D. Constable Robbe. Macmillan & Co. Pp. 418. Price, $6.50.

There are but few subjects that would seem less attractive than the scientific investigation of ferments and the processes of fermentation, yet the book before us is alive with interest from beginning to end. This is due to the genius of the author, the scientific importance of his inquiry, the spirited controversies which have recently grown out of the inquiry, and its important practical results. Pasteur is a man remarkably endowed for subtile research. His investigation of the diseases of the silkworm was one of the most difficult, refined, and successful of modern researches. A delicate experimenter, a sharp observer, and a man of keen insight and careful judgment, he has taken the acknowledged lead in investigating the obscure phenomena of microscopic life at the present time. The questions opened are the deepest in modern thought, involving nothing less than the origin of life-forms, and the method of Nature regarding vital phenomena. Pasteur has been in the center of the battle of spontaneous generation, and yet so practical have been his investigations that the brewers are of all men most interested in them. The present work deals with the diseases of beer, and those deteriorations of its processes that are involved in the changes of fermentation; and its leading translator is an author of the "Art of Brewing." The work will be of great interest, therefore, to all engaged in this branch of manufacturing industry, not only by throwing light upon the theory of brewing, but by the solutions it gives of serious practical difficulties hitherto encountered in the brewer's art. Pasteur's elucidations of fermentative action bear also upon the operations of wine-making and vinegar-making, as well as beer making.

A Text-Book of Physiology. By M. Foster, M. A., M. D., F. R. S., Prælector in Physiology and Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. With Illustrations. Macmillan & Co. Pp. 720. Price, $3.50.

The writing of his "Physiology" by Dr. Foster was far from being a case of bookmaking in the ordinary sense. He is a man not only devoted to his subject, but especially and assiduously devoted to its progress, so that the preparation of his textbook was but an incident in his studies, and has, moreover, been a continuous work with him for several years. The third edition, revised and enlarged, is now issued; and it represents, perhaps, better than any other book the recent advance and present condition of physiological science. Dr. Foster is at the head of the new physiological laboratory at Cambridge, England, where the experimental method of physiological inquiry is vigorously pursued; and his textbook is, of course, prepared from that point of view. Under this method, physiological science is slowly acquiring certainty and increasing precision in its conclusions, as no one can fail to see who compares Dr. Foster's text-book with the standard treatises of a few years ago. We agree with Professor Burt Wilder that this is "in some respects the best physiology in the English language." We note that a cheap students' edition of the work is to be issued in a short time.

A Forbidden Land; Voyages to the Corea. By Ernest Oppert. With 21 Illustrations and Two Charts. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons. 1880. Pp. 334. Price, $3.

This is an interesting account of a little known country in Eastern Asia. The present kingdom of Corea consists of a large peninsula east of the Chinese Empire, extending from 42° north latitude to the Straits of Corea. The country has always been exclusive in its policy, this exclusion extending in later years even to its near neighbors, China and Japan, so that very little has been known of the physical features of the country or of the habits and character of its people. The country for centuries has been at war with China and Japan, and the scene, of fierce internal feuds, and only latterly has it been able to secure itself against its foreign enemies and unite into one kingdom under one ruler. It has been supposed that the Corean Peninsula was settled from China, but this, Mr. Oppert declares, is an utter mistake. The Coreans differ widely in their customs from the Chinese, and do not present the physical appearance to justify such an origin. The upper classes of the Coreans are of a Caucasian type and the lower of a Mongolian one. The country is destitute of native histories, and the people profess to know nothing of their origin, though some of the aristocratic classes have fabulous accounts of it. The author gives much interesting matter concerning the customs, institutions, and natural features of the country, and feels impatient at its seclusion from the trade of the world, and appears to think a forcible opening of it desirable.

United States Geological and Geographical Survey of Colorado and Adjacent Territories in 1876. By F. V. Hayden. Washington: Government Printing-Office. 1878.

This is the tenth annual report of the survey under the direction of Professor Hayden, and is devoted to the survey completing the work in Colorado and portions of adjacent Territories. The report consists of an account of the work done in the geology, topography, archæology and ethnology, and paleontology and zoölogy of the region. The report has a number of excellent maps, and numerous lithographic plates of the ancient mines examined, and of specimens of the pottery, both ancient and modern, of the natives of the region.

Sunshine and Storm in the East. By Mrs. Brassey. New York: Henry Holt & Co. 1880. Pp. 438. Price, $3.50.

Those who enjoyed Mrs. Brassey's account of her "Voyage in the Sunbeam" will welcome her present account of her two visits to Cyprus and Constantinople. The book is in the form of a diary, which is not, it seems to us, a very interesting way of presenting the scenes and incidents of travel. The work is profusely illustrated and handsomely printed on heavy calendered paper. The cover strikes us as somewhat flashy, but is designed, we presume to be artistic.


Does Spiritualism transcend Natural Law? By W. G. Stevenson, M. D. 1880. Pp. 25.

Interoceanic Ship-Railway. Remarks of Dr. William F. Channing before Select Committee of the House of Representatives, March 27, 1880. With Exhibits. Pp. 10.

The Education of the Blind. An Address before the Wisconsin Teachers' Association, July 10, 1879. By Mrs. Sarah P. C. Little. Pp. 15.

A Catalogue of the Birds of Indiana, with Keys and Descriptions of the Groups of Greatest Interest to the Horticulturist. By Alembert W. Brayton, B. S., M D. Indianapolis: Douglass & Carlow. 1880. Pp. 77.

Remarks of Hon. Barton A. Hepburn in Support of the Bill entitled "An Act to regulate the Transportation of Freight, by Railroad Corporations." Albany: Weed, Parsons & Co. 1880. Pp. 30.

A Study of some of the Starches. By Mrs. Lou Reed Stowell. Ann Arbor. 1880. Pp. 17.

College Libraries as Aids to Instruction. Circulars of Information of the Bureau of Education. No. 1. 1880. Washington: Government Printing-office. Pp. 27.

The Unity Pulpit. Boston. Sermons of M. J. Savage. No. 21. "The Straggle and Triumph of Man." No. 22, "Patience." No. 23, "The Nearness of God." No. 24, "Faithfulness." By W. H. Savage. No. 25, Series of Talks about Jesus: I. "Sources of our Knowledge." No. 26. "Channing Unitarianism." No. 27, Talks about Jesus: II. "The Miraculous." No. 28, Talks about Jesus: III. "Birth and Childhood."

On the Removal of Foreign Bodies from the Ear: With Four Cases. By Charles Stedman Bull, M.D. New York. 1880. Pp. 9.

Revised Catalogue of the Birds of Chemung County, New York. By W. H. Gregg, M.D. Elmira. 1880. Pp. 25.

Report of the Director of the Central Park Menagerie. New York: M. B. Brown, Printer. 1880. Pp. 32.

Railway Land Grants of the United States. By F. H. Talbot. Chicago: The Railway Age Publishing Company. 1880. Pp. 66.

Valedictory Address to the Graduating Class of the Woman's Medical College of Pennsylvania. By Frances Emily White, M. D. Philadelphia: Grant, Faires & Rodgers, Printers. 1880. Pp. 16.

The Tongue of the Honey-Bee. By Professor A. J. Cook. Reprint from "The American Naturalist." Illustrated. Pp. 9.

On the Foramina perforating the Posterior Part of the Squamosal Bone of the Mammalia. By E. D. Cope. Pp. 10.

A Review of the Modern Doctrine of Evolution. By E. D. Cope. Reprint from "The American Naturalist." Illustrated. Pp. 21.

Some Thoughts and Facts concerning the Food of Man. By Dr. E. L. Sturtevant. From the "Report of the Secretary of Connecticut Board of Agriculture." 1880. Pp. 41.

Muscle-Beating for Healthy and Unhealthy People. By M Klemm. Illustrated. New York: M. L. Holbrook & Co. 1879. Pp. 56. 30 cents.

The Problems of Insanity. A Paper read before the New York Medico-Legal Society, March 3, 1880. By George M. Beard, M.D. Pp. 24.

Proverbial Treasury. English and Select Foreign Proverbs from Fifty-one Different Ancient and Modern Languages. By Carl Seelbach. New York: Seelbach Bros. 1880. No. I., containing 4,900 Proverbs. 50 cents.

Actual Measures of the Great Pyramid of Egypt, disclosing the Architectural System employed. International Institute for preserving and perfecting Weights and Measures. Toledo Blade Printing Co. 1880. Pp. 19.

Studies from the Biological Laboratory of the Johns Hopkins University. No. 1, Session 1877-'78. No. 2. Session 1878-'79. Edited by II. N. Martin, M.A., D.Sc., Professor of Biology. No. 3. Chesapeake Zoölogical Laboratory. Scientific Results of the Session of 1878. Edited by Professor W. K. Brooks, Associate in Biology. 1879. No. 4, Development of the Oyster. By W. K. Brooks. Baltimore: John Murphy & Co. 1880. $1 each.

Camps and Tramps in the Adirondacks, and Grayling Fishing in Northern Michigan. A Record of Summer Vacations in the Wilderness. By A. J. Northrup. Syracuse, N.Y.: Davis, Bardeen & Co. 1880. Pp. 302. $1.25.

Dwelling-Houses: Their Sanitary Construction and Arrangement. By Professor W. H. Corfield, M.A. M.D. New York: D. Van Nostrand. 1380. Pp. 155. 50 cents.

A Series of Questions in English and American Literature. Prepared by Mary F. Hendrick. Syracuse. N.Y.: Davis, Bardeen & Co. 1880. Pp. 76. 35 cent.

Sea-Air and Sea-Bathing. By John H. Packard, M.D. Philadelphia: Presley Blakiston. 1880. Pp. 124. 50 cents.

Post-Mortem Examinations. By Professor Rudolph Virchow. Translated from the second German edition. By Dr. T. P. Smith. Philadelphia: Presley Blakiston. 1880. Pp. 145. $1.25.

Common Mind-Troubles and the Secret of a Clear Head. By J. Mortimer Granville. M.D., etc. Edited, with Additions, by an American Physician. Philadelphia: D. G. Brinton. 1880. Pp. 185. $1.

The Hair: Its Growth, Care, Diseases, and Treatment. By C. Henri Leonard, M.A., M.D. Detroit: C. Henri Leonard. 1880. Pp. 316. $2.

Free Land and Free Trade. By Samuel S. Cox. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons. 1880. Pp. 126. $1.25.

Radical Mechanics of Animal Locomotion. By William P. Wainwright. New York: D. Van Nostrand. 1880. Pp. 294. $1.50.

Silver in its Relation to Industry and Trade. By William Brown. Montreal: Lovell Printing Co. 1880. Pp. 134. 60 cents.

Life: Its True Genesis. By R. W. Wright. New York: G. P. Putnam's & Sons. 1880. Pp. 298. $1.50.

Practical Keramics for Students. By C. A. Jannier. New York: Henry Holt & Co. 1880. Pp. 258. $2.50.

A Guide to Modern English History. By William Cory. Part I., 1815 to 1830. New York: Henry Holt & Co. 1880. Pp. 276. $2.

Schiller's Complete Works. Edited, with Careful Revisions and New Translations, by Charles J. Hempel, M.D. In Two Volumes, with Illustrations by the Best German Artists. Philadelphia: G. Kohler. 1879. Cloth.