Popular Science Monthly/Volume 24/February 1884/Literary Notices

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LITERARY NOTICES.

World-Life; or, Comparative Geology. By Alexander Winchell, LL.D., Professor of Geology and Paleontology in the University of Michigan. Chicago: S. C. Grigg's & Co. Pp. 642. Price, $2.50.

In this compact but comprehensive book Professor Winchell has made a contribution to science that was greatly needed, and he has performed his task in a manner that well comports with the grandeur of the subject. A carefully prepared book, representing the present state of knowledge on "the processes of world-formation, world-growth, and world-decadence," has been urgently needed for some years. There is, no doubt, much shallow skepticism in many minds regarding the validity of inquiries in this field, which has been relegated to the sphere of scientific romance and fanciful speculation. But sober and well-instructed minds have not shared in this feeling. Our knowledge concerning the genesis of worlds is, of course, yet very incomplete, and there is necessarily much of that divergence of opinion in relation to it which always belongs to the stage of active advancing inquiry. But there is already a great body of assured and formulated knowledge bearing upon the problem of the genesis of worlds which is not to be gainsaid, and there has been the steadily increasing necessity that this knowledge should be collated, and organized into definite scientific form. But a somewhat special preparation was required to do anything like tolerable justice to this work. The factors of the discussion are of the largest import. Celestial mechanics has long been the fundamental element of the research, and within recent years celestial chemistry has come forward as of equal importance. Nebular cosmogony and nebular evolution are now established conceptions of science, and, in working them out, the sciences of geology and astronomy are of equal significance and application. Professor Winchell refers to his task as an attempt at "laying the foundations of a science which, from one point of view, may be styled the geology of the stars, and, from another, the astronomy of the earth. It is the science of comparative geology. It is astrogeology." In regard to the present position of the nebular view, the author remarks: "Nor can it be correctly said that the general theory remains still in the status of an hypothesis. In certain points of detail opinion may still remain divided; but, when an hypothesis has stood the scrutiny of three generations, and has become all but unanimously accepted, by those prepared to form original opinions, as the real expression of a method in nature, surely, then, the time has passed when any person can advantageously illustrate his learning and sagacity by continuing to reproach the conception as 'a mere hypothesis.' If any 'mere hypothesis' ever strengthened into the condition of a scientific doctrine, assuredly we find in the scientific world today the general features of a sound nebular doctrine."

Professor Winchell's geological studies, long carried on in connection with the cosmical problems which they involve, have well prepared him for the broad investigation which has led to the writing of the present volume; but the problems of the nebular hypothesis have long occupied a large amount of attention with him, and been made a subject of his college lectures, so that he has made it a point to master the various special questions that have recently come forward in connection with this subject. We know of no other work in which the reader can find a full, connected, and systematic presentation of the results of cosmical research that will compare with this, and we are especially glad to see that the publishers have put it at a reasonable and popular price.

No sufficient account of the contents of the book can be offered in the space at our command, but we give an imperfect outline of the main features of the exposition.

The book is divided into four parts, of which Part I, entitled "World-Stuff," treats of the process by which the constituent particles of worlds become aggregated into spheroidal masses. The meteoric matter which is constantly falling upon the earth in masses varying from dust-particles to meteorites of several tons weight, the zodiacal light, which polariscopic study shows to be reflected sunlight, comets, which are now known to be simply conglomerations of cosmical dust, the rings of Saturn, and the irresolvable nebula?, all go to show that a vast amount of matter such as our earth is made of, must exist diffused in space. "All the moving bodies of our system must be continually pelted by these cosmical atoms, and the aggregate result of these collisions must, in thousands or millions of years, affect their motions. Supposing the motions of the cosmical atoms to have no prevailing direction, it is evident that the motions of the planets, satellites, and comets of our system would cause them to meet more of these atoms than the total number which would overtake them. The result would, therefore, be a resistance to the movement of these bodies, and the effect of this would be an acceleration of their motions and a shortening of their periods. I venture the opinion that this cause is a more efficient resistance than the supposed ethereal medium." These material particles are drawn by mutual attraction into groups, and any central attractive force, as of a sun or planet, would also cause them to aggregate, by deflecting their motions into converging lines. But, in the presence of two or more attractive centers, as in the present constitution of the cosmos, it is impossible that any mass shall fall directly upon its center of attraction; hence every body would tend to circulate about every other body. But the resulting movements would be so infinitely complex as to precipitate countless collisions of particles and masses. Each group or swarm which gradually forms will have a progressive motion along a path having the essential character of an orbit around some dominant center of attraction. If any condition of interplanetary matter exists in space, its resistance would cause the smaller particles to fall behind, and the whole swarm to assume an elongated fan-shape. The attractions that control these motions would be feeble; sometimes the controlling one would be only that of another cosmical swarm. Most of these swarms of cosmical dust would simply float poised in space, growing by accession of particles, and occasionally coalescing with other clouds, until an aggregation is formed large enough to be called a nebula. From these various attractions and collisions the nebula would have acquired a rotary motion. It would assume the form of an oblate spheroid, and, as the cloud-like mass cooled, the consequent contraction would increase the speed of rotation, until an equatorial ringlet of particles gained a centrifugal tendency equal to the centripetal. Further contraction would cause the main body of the spheroid to shrink away from this ring, which would then rotate independently. We might suppose that successive slender ringlets would become detached until the whole mass was converted into an essentially continuous disk, for the attraction of the ring first separated would be added to the centrifugal force of the circlet of particles nearest it, and so on. But every successive addition to the annular mass increases its distance from the next ringlet of particles, and upon this its influence, though increasing with the growth of the ring, diminishes as the square of the distance increases. As a result, "an annular mass of relatively considerable amount would separate, and a secular interval would intervene before the separation of another annular mass." None of these rings could long remain of uniform thickness. Each would attenuate in some part, and finally rupture, resolving itself into a mass that would possess a rotary motion, the direction of which would be determined by the relation of the velocities of the outer and inner zones of the ring.

Part II, "Planetology," occupies about half the volume. In the first chapter of it, certain observed phenomena of the solar system are enumerated which accord with the requirements of the nebular theory, and objections to the theory are answered. For the retrograde motions of the satellites of Uranus and Neptune our author advances several explanations: 1. It is entirely conceivable that both the Uranian and Neptunian systems should have suffered a tilting through more than a right angle by the influence of some powerfully attracting body passing in the neighborhood. 2. The coalescence of two or more spheroids may have tilted the axis of the resultant planet, and its whole system of satellites would be correspondingly tilted. 3. Certain relations of density, distance from the center of the nebulous mass, breadth of ring, and velocity might cause retrograde motion in the earlier stages of the evolution of a nebula of a certain magnitude. The next chapter describes the passage of a gaseous planet to the molten phase, the solidification of its core from pressure of the superincumbent portions, the incrustation of its surface, and the transformations of this crust. A large influence on planetary history is ascribed to tidal action, a tide being defined as "the prolateness of a body resulting from the attraction of another body." Coming to some special considerations of the planetary bodies in the solar system, Professor Winchell mentions three independent conceivable causes for the molten condition in which a part of the earth's substance evidently is: "There may be a zone too deep for solidification by cooling, and too shallow for solidification by pressure. . . . In the next place, we may suppose that at all depths beneath the surface the pressure is such that the fusing-point is higher than the actual temperature, so that a state of solidity exists. . . . We may conceive that heat and fusion result from some mechanical crushing pressure." In regard to this last theory he says, further: "But a cause of crushing pressure which seems to me more adequate than secular cooling is suggested by Sir William Thomson's and Archdeacon Pratt's, and, we may add, Professor G. H. Darwin's, demonstrations of tidal effects in a globe as rigid as steel or glass. May not the tidal deformations of the earth's crust be the source of the internal heat which manifests itself in fluidity? The whole value of the lunar tidal oscillation in a yielding globe should be about fifty-eight inches. In a globe as rigid as glass it should, therefore, be about 34·8 inches, and, in one as rigid as steel, 19·33 inches. The whole tidal oscillation under the joint maximum influence of the sun and moon in a perfectly yielding globe would be about 81·2 inches. The amount in a globe of glass would, therefore, be, when at a maximum, 48·72 inches, and, in a globe of steel, 27·06 inches. Should the terrestrial globe yield to the extent of any one of these amounts, the crushing effect experienced by the superior zones of the crust would not be uniformly distributed, since variations in structure and hardness and surface configuration would preserve certain portions from any change, and the whole amount of the interstitial displacements would be accumulated in the remaining portions. It does not seem at all improbable that the transformation of such enormous mechanical force into heat should suffice to bring to a state of fusion volumes considerable enough to answer all the requirements of the thermal manifestations of modern times, as well as the terrestrial movements of modern earthquakes." From an examination of the planetology of the moon he concludes that "lunar history must have presented characteristics widely divergent from those of terrestrial history; and in this divergence the tenuity of the moon's atmosphere has performed a part quite comparable with the energetic work of the tides. . . .

"The question of the habitability of other worlds has generally been discussed from the assumption that all other corporeal beings must be clothed in flesh and bones similar to those of terrestrial animals, and must be adapted to a similar physical environment. But it is manifest, on a moment's consideration, that corporeality may exist under very divergent conditions. It is not at all improbable that substances of a refractory nature might be so mixed with other substances, known or unknown to us, as to be capable of enduring vastly greater vicissitudes of heat and cold than is possible with terrestrial organisms. . . . There may be intelligences corporealized after some concept not involving the processes of ingestion, assimilation, and reproduction. Such bodies would not require daily food and warmth. They might be lost in the abysses of the ocean, or laid up on a stormy cliff through the tempests of an Arctic winter, or plunged in a volcano for a hundred years, and yet retain consciousness and thought. It is conceivable. Why might not psychic natures be enshrined in indestructible flint and platinum? These substances are no further from the nature of intelligence than carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and lime."

"General Cosmogony" is the title of Part III, which consists of a short chapter on the condition of the fixed stars and nebulæ, with some general considerations on the whole system. "Evolution of Cosmogonic Doctrine" occupies the rest of the volume. In these concluding chapters the growth of man's view of the universe is traced from the partial conceptions of the Greek philosophers to the comprehensive system of modern astronomers. The theories of Kepler, Descartes, Leibnitz, Swedenborg, and Thomas Wright, are described briefly, and that of Kant is given with some detail. Then follow the views of Lambert, Sir William Herschel, and Laplace, and a brief "Systematic Résumé of Opinions."

Man a Creative First Cause: Two Discourses delivered at Concord, Mass., July, 1882. By Rowland G. Hazard, LL. D. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin & Co. Pp. 112.

In this instructive little volume we have a compact and very lucid restatement of the leading philosophical views of its veteran author, which were several years ago developed in an extended form in his more elaborate works. Mr. Hazard is well known as a man of original and versatile thought, and has dealt with a considerable variety of subjects, practical as well as theoretical, in his various publications; but he will probably be best known in the future by his comprehensive metaphysical treatise entitled "On the Freedom of the Mind in Willing." The origin of this work is, on various accounts, so interesting and significant, that it should not be forgotten.

The celebrated Dr. William Ellery Channing, whose reputation is world-wide as a gifted preacher, a discriminating philanthropist, and as the father of American liberal theology, is understood to have been in a somewhat unsettled state of mind upon what may be regarded as the logic of the old free-will controversy. He is said to have "confessed to an incapacity to form any satisfactory philosophical theory and defense of that moral freedom in which he devoutly and earnestly believed." Dissatisfied with all that had been written upon the problem, and confessedly unable himself to cope with its difficulties, and at the same time holding inflexibly by the doctrine of mental liberty in volition, he was very naturally solicitous to see the question handled by some powerful intellect, qualified for the research, and who could put the proofs of man's moral liberty on a firmer basis than they had hitherto occupied. But who was to be found competent to enter upon this formidable task? Learned scholars were sufficiently abundant. The colleges turned out their annual multitude of men who had been long steeped in recondite studies; whose intellects had been disciplined and sharpened by those marvelous instrumentalities destined from the foundations of the world "for the perpetual training of the minds of the later generations," the dead languages, but Dr. Channing did not find his man in this class. In his celebrated essay on "Self-Culture," there occurs the following passage: "I have known a man of vigorous intellect who "had enjoyed few advantages of early education, whose mind was almost engrossed by the details of an extensive business, who composed a book of much originality of thought in steam-boats, on horseback, while visiting distant customers."

The book here referred to was entitled "Language: an Essay," and was written forty-seven years ago by Mr. Hazard. Dr. Charming was so impressed by the work, that he sought the author out, made his acquaintance, and found that, notwithstanding his "few advantages of early education," he gave better promise of ability to grapple with a profound metaphysical problem, and make more progress in its analysis, than any of the regulation scholars with whom he was acquainted. An authoritative critic speaks as follows of Mr. Hazard's first work, the essay on language:

The essay was not more worthy of attention from the circumstances under which it was written than from the interest and freshness, if not the absolute originality, of some of its thinking. The tone of the first essay is that of a refined and elevated idealism in its underlying philosophy and in the moral earnestness of its practical spirit. The essay was highly esteemed in those days of transcendental aspiration, and excited a very general curiosity among the eager seekers after new truths and new prophets. Unlike many of the effusions of the taught and untaught seers of those effervescing years, this essay was in every line clear, analytic, and severely reasoned. It was, however, as characteristically idealistic in its philosophical spirit as it was imaginative in its poetical and ethical portraitures. The essay put Dr. Channing upon the quest to discover its author, and this discovery led to a friendly intimacy between the two till the death of the philosophic divine, which was commemorated by an affectionate yet discriminating essay from his philosophic protegé and friend.

Yielding to the earnest injunction of Dr. Channing, Mr. Hazard early in life took up the question of free-will, and published the results of his studies in two solid volumes, "Freedom of the Mind in Willing, etc." (1864); and two letters on "Causation," and "Freedom in Willing," addressed to John Stuart Mill (1869). Those who desire to become familiar with Mr. Hazard's reasoning in its full elaboration must consult these works; in the volume before us the results are necessarily much epitomized.

Into the merits of the great question of free-will we can not, of course, here enter. It is alleged that modern science, by its vast extension of the idea of natural law, has strengthened the conceptions of necessity and fatalism at the expense of moral freedom, But determinism never had a more powerful champion than Jonathan Edwards, and he certainly did not draw his inspiration from modern science. Mr. Hazard takes broad issue with Edwards. Professor Huxley, a leading "automatist," and representing the latest science, admits that "volition counts for something"—but the philosophical question is, For how much? Nobody claims that the will is unlimited. The title of Mr. Hazard's book, "Man a Creative First Cause," seems rather startling at first, but it is because of our theological connotations of the term "creative." His obvious implication is of the mind willing and working in its own sphere, where we properly speak of creative genius and originating capacity. Indeed, Mr. Hazard explicitly says: "Exterior to itself, it (the human mind) may not have the power to execute what it wills; it may be frustrated by other external forces, since in the external the ideal incipient creation may not be consummated by finite effort. But, as in our moral nature the willing, the persevering effort, is itself the consummation, there can be no such failure; and the mind in it is therefore not only a creative but a supreme creative first cause.

Mr. Hazard's book is tersely and vigorously written, and takes a somewhat wide range both of philosophical and practical suggestion. The author has a sturdy faith in the value of metaphysical studies for practical utility as a mental training, and also in their disciplinary power for the formation of human character. This view is incidentally presented, and we only regret that he has not more fully and formally developed it. Such a discussion would be valuable to education, and we are not without hope that Mr. Hazard may yet find it practicable to give fuller expression to his views and reasonings upon the subject.
 
INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC SERIES. VOL. XLVI.

The Organs of Speech, and their Application in the Formation of Articulate Sounds. By G. H. von Meyer, Professor in the University of Zurich. New York: D. Appleton & Co. Pp. 349. Price, $1.75.

There has long been wanted a first-class work on this interesting subject, treated with reference to the requirements of ordinary intelligent readers. It has, of course, been familiar in a certain way to the anatomists who have dissected the vocal structures with reference to pathology and surgery, and given the representations of the parts in their text-books. But the combination of physiology with anatomy, and the study of function in connection with structure, and especially the later progress in acoustical science, have given a new interest to the vocal apparatus quite beyond that of the bare anatomist. The subject of the vocal organs, considered in relation to their marvelous capacities, or the most wonderful results obtained from the simplest means, is one of quite extraordinary interest. We hear much of the subtilties, refinements, and complexities of vocal language, with its hundreds of forms among different peoples, its millions of words, its capacity of expressing numberless shades of feeling, and conveying the highest spiritual influence. But, besides the common uses of speech in conversation, reading, and oratory, we are all familiar with vocal music as an art, inexhaustible in its variety of styles, and the ranges of its development. But what is the foundation of all this? Nothing but mechanism, bellows, and mechanical arrangements for acting upon currents of air for the production and control of sound. This side of the subject, being merely mechanical and material, has had but little interest for those who care only about the effects. When people lose their voices, they are reminded that there is a mechanism involved, and consult the doctor to find out what ails their vocal organs; but there has been so little other concern about them, that any thorough-going scientific investigation of their wonderful capacities and working has been long neglected.

Dr. Meyer's work is a contribution to the physiological science of the vocal organs from this point of view. It is an original treatise, with strong philological bearings, and contains various new interpretations, the result of the author's special and extensive researches. The object and plan of the work can not be better presented than in the language of the author in his preface:

The more we become convinced that a true knowledge of the laws which govern the transformation of the elements of speech, in the formation of dialects or derivative languages, can only be obtained from a study of the physiological laws of the formation of articulate sounds, the more necessary does it become for the philologist to be thoroughly acquainted with the structure and functions of the organs of speech. The ordinary anatomical handbooks are little adapted to this purpose, for much is there discussed at length which is of no use to the philologist; while, on the other hand, points which to him are of considerable importance are only briefly alluded to. In physiological hand-books, also, only a short space is in most cases devoted to this subject.

It is, therefore, my object, in the present work, to discuss, with special reference to this requirement of the philologist, the structure and functions of the organs of speech.

In explaining the origin of articulate sounds, I have so far departed from the usual method that I have not attempted to arrange physiologically the entire series of sounds employed in the most differing languages; but rather, starting from the structure of the organs of speech, to give a sketch of all possible articulate sounds. I believe I have thus constructed a system in which all known articulate sounds, and all those with which we may hereafter become acquainted, will find a place. Such a sketch could not, of course, be given without reference to existing languages. The object has not been, however, to enter into the field of discussion upon the various modifications of sounds, but merely to bring forward a sufficient number of examples in confirmation of the laws explained, for which purpose the more nearly related European languages are sufficient.

Ocean Grove Camp-Meeting Association. Fourteenth Annual Report. Ocean Grove, N. J. Published by order of the Association. Pp. 75.

The friends of the Association were disturbed much more than they had reason to be last year by some dozen lines concerning unhealthy conditions that had been noticed at Ocean Grove, which we published in the course of an article of considerable length, dealing with the sanitary condition of seaside resorts generally. Without further noticing the unkind words—the more unkind because they are undeserved—which the president of the Association still applies to us, we call attention to the confessions contained in the present report that there were things at the Grove that needed remedying, and to the gratifying fact that the Association has applied the remedies. Owing to what the report calls continuous and studied misrepresentations, a prejudice existed, "to remove which required our most energetic toil. To meet the expenses of such labor demanded funds largely in advance of current receipts." If only a prejudice, and that false, why so much labor and expense in building sewers and sinking an artesian well to remove what was only ideal and unfounded? A system of sewerage was begun about three years ago. "The plan of running the sewage into tanks, and letting it out periodically into the sea, had many objections, and was only partially successful. Another must be devised. . . . The result is so triumphantly satisfactory that Dr. E. M. Hunt, the Secretary of the New Jersey State Board of Health, after a very careful examination of its work, pronounced it not only satisfactory but the most complete that could be made." It embraces 15,050 feet of twelve-inch mains, and 8,500 feet of connecting lines, or in all 23,550 feet, or four and one half miles of sewer, connecting with all the large and with many of the smaller houses. Of the work of the year, the president is glad to state that "an offensive condition of things which has for several years caused much complaint, in the rear of the tents near the Trenton House, has been effectually removed, and the water-closet arrangements have been so adjusted as to give perfect satisfaction to those immediately concerned, greatly to the relief of the management of the Grove." An artesian well was opened in August, having a depth of 420 feet, and delivering about a barrel of water a minute. There are also at least 800 tube-wells which draw water from a depth of from twenty to thirty feet. Dr. Hunt says, in his report of the State Board of Health, that the sanitary prospects of the Grove have been greatly improved "the last year." The township Board of Health examined the sewer arrangements and report them satisfactory in every respect. Physicians at Ocean Grove and Asbury Park declare that the sanitary conditions of Ocean Grove were never so good; and some of them that the sanitary conditions there are superior to those of any other of the watering places of New Jersey. "The Popular Science Monthly" is as glad as the officers of the Association or its best friends can be that it has been so successful in improving the condition of things, present and prospective, and is able to make so good a showing.

The Evolutionary Significance of Human Character. By Professor E. D. Cope, Philadelphia. Pp. 12.

In this paper Professor Cope essays a sketch of the order of development of the different faculties of the mind, and summarizes his conclusions by saying that the order of the appearance of the intelligence is nearly dependent on the development of the powers of observation. The character of most civilizations tends to diminish the power of perception, while the higher departments of reason and imagination are enlarged. The imagination reached a high development before reason had attained much strength. With the exception of a few families, the intelligence of mankind has, up to within two or three centuries, expressed itself in works of imagination. "With the modern cultivation of the natural and physical sciences, the perceptive faculties will be restored, it is to be hoped, to their true place, and thus many avenues opened up for the higher thought-power of a developed race. Thus it is that in the order of human development there is to be a return to the primitive powers of observation, without loss of the later-acquired and more noble capacities of the intellect."

Horses: Their Feed and their Feet. By C. E. Page, M. D. New York: Fowler & Wells. Pp. 149. 75 cts.

A book of plain, practical maxims on the proper keeping of horses, involving some views that are novel, but the value of which has been tested in the author's experience. A leading object is to recommend a reformed system of feeding, that we might characterize as the "two-meal" system, which is fully expounded and earnestly maintained. Accounts are given of the way Mr. Bonner and other famous fanciers treat their horses. The causes of various diseases are pointed out, and suggestions are given respecting their treatment. The question of shoeing is fully considered, and it is shown how, under many conditions, horses will do better service without shoes; and Colonel C. M. Weld contributes an account of his experience with barefoot horses.

Photo-Micrographs, and how to make them. By George M. Sternberg, M. D., United States Army. Boston: James R. Osgood & Co. Pp. 204, with Twenty Colored Heliotype Plates. $3.

This work, which is really an elegant, although the author modestly styles it a "little" volume, is practical, and is intended for beginners in the art to which it relates. That art, photo-micrography, is the art of taking sun-pictures of microscopic objects more or less magnified, and is to be distinguished from micro photography, which merely takes microscopic photographs of objects that can be seen by the naked eye. The former art is scientifically instructive, the latter merely produces curiosities. The author's object in preparing the volume has been to give such an account of the technique of the art as will enable persons familiar with the use of the microscope to make photo-micrographs of suitable objects with a minimum expenditure of time and money. The illustrations have been selected with a view of showing the kinds of microscopic objects best suited for photographing, and the results which may be expected by one who is willing to devote a little time to the mastering of technical difficulties. They represent forty-nine different objects.

Sewer-Gas and its Alleged Causation of Typhoid Fever. By George Hamilton, M. D. Pp. 12. The Status of Professional Opinion and Popular Sentiment regarding Sewer-Gas and Contaminated Water as Causes of Typhoid Fever. By George Hamilton, M. D. Philadelphia. Pp. 10. Etiology and Non-Infection of Sewer-Gases. By Washington Ayer, M. D., of San Francisco. Pp. 25.

Dr. Hamilton undertakes to controvert the sewer-gas theory of the origin of typhoid fever, by showing that the disease is not dependent upon the presence or absence of sewers, or upon any conditions of filth in large cities; and that it prevails in the country, where there are no sewers, and everything is favorable to purity of the atmosphere, more extensively and more fatally than anywhere else. Dr. Ayer maintains substantially the same points, but rather on philosophical grounds than by the citation of examples, and disputes the competency of the experiments which have been relied upon to determine that bacteria are the cause of the diseases with which they have been found associated.

The Influence of Athletic Games upon Greek Art. By Charles Waldstein, Esq., University of Cambridge, England. Pp. 24.

This paper is an inquiry into the cause of the persistency of the influence of Greek art upon us. The answer is found in the fact that Greek art is true to nature, yet not so servile as to be sensual and sensational, but is also ideal. "The ideal in art is the highest generalization of form. In Greek art it was the highest generalization of the forms of nature. The works of Greek art are, therefore, not dependent for appreciation upon one individual spectator, or one special mood of the individual, but are valid for all sane men, for all men of a certain physiological constitution of their senses, surrounded by man and nature relatively the same." The inquiry is pursued how Greek art effected this combination of the natural and the ideal. The natural was developed in the portraiture of athletes, the ideal in the effort to represent and characterize the gods.

An Index to Articles relating to History, Biography, Literature, Society, and Travel, contained in Collections of Essays, etc. By W. M. Griswold, Bangor, Me. Q. P. Index. Pp. 56.

This is No. 13 of the "Q. P. Index," a series of works for the projection and execution of which Mr. Griswold, who has made it his special business, deserves the thanks of every student and reader. The character of the present number of the series is fairly well represented by its title. There are hosts of articles of great value on particular subjects inclosed in volumes of essays and miscellaneous writings, which are practically inaccessible because the general title of the volume gives no clew to what is in it. The present index gives the key to the subjects within its scope as represented in 799 volumes by different authors. The publisher hopes in time to improve upon it and enlarge it that is, to bring other books into view.

A Physician's Sermon to Young Men. By William Pratt. New York: M. L. Holbrook & Co. Pp. 48. 25 cts.

A lecture to young men on the importance of personal purity and of the restraint of all tendencies to vicious indulgence, the destructive physical and moral consequences of which are pointed out in language that does not err by lack of plainness or vigor. As counteractives to vicious propensities, are recommended cold bathing, hard beds, and sleeping alone, abundant work, plain food, careful reading, right choice of companions, and religion.

Hydraulic Tables for the Calculation of the Discharge through Sewer-Pipes and Conduits. By P. J. Flynn, C. E. New York: D. Van Nostrand. Pp. 135. 50 cts.

The usefulness of such tables as are presented in this volume, to all persons engaged in works demanding the calculations, needs no demonstration. The tables are based on Kulter's formula.

The Oyster Epicure. New York: White, Stokes & Allen. Pp. 61. 30 cts.

This is a collation of authorities on the gastronomy and dietetics of the oyster, the reading of which is appetizing, and calculated to make the reader wish he could find some oysters as good in the actuality as he can imagine them to be.

 

 
PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED.

Malaria as an Etiological Factor in New York City. By Simon Baruch, M. D. New York: Trow's Printing and Bookbinding Co. Pp. 22.

Continuity and Catastrophes in Geology. By the Duke of Argyll. Edinburgh: David Douglas. Pp. 32. One shilling.

A Plea for the Cure of Rupture. By Joseph H. Warren, M. D. Pp. 117, with a Plate. $1.

Proceedings of the Indiana Pharmaceutical Association, May, 1883. Indianapolis: Joseph E. Perry, Secretary. Pp. 1 64.

Bulletin of the United States Geological Survey, No. 1. Two Special Papers. By Whitman Cross and S. F. Emmons. Washington: Government Printing-Office. Pp. 42.

Pilot Chart of the North Atlantic, for December, with "Supplement," giving details of storms and nautical information. Washington: U. S. Hydrographic Office. (Supplement) pp. 11. Reports of Observations and Experiments in the Division of Entomology. Department of Agriculture. Washington: Government Printing-Office. Pp. 75, with Three Plates.

Transactions of the American Dermatological Association, August, 1853. Dr. Arthur Van Harlingen, Secretary. Philadelphia. Pp. 49.

Scientific Papers of the Vassar Brothers Institute, Poughkeepsie, N. Y., 1881-'83. Leroy C. Cooley, Ph. D., Chairman. Pp. 113.

Cuentos de Hoy y Mañana. Cuadros Politicos y Sociales. (Stories of To-day and To-morrow; Political and Social Sketches.) By Rafael de C. Palomino, Jr. No. 1. New York: N. Ponco de Leon. Pp. 53.

Recherches sur le Structure de quelques Diatomées contenues dans le Cementstein du Jutland. (Researches on the Structure of Certain Diatoms contained in the Cement-Stone of Jutland.) By MM. W. Prinz and E. Van Ermengen. Brussels: A. Manceaux. Pp. 74, with Four Plates.

One Thousand and One Riddles. By Nellie Greenway. New York: J. S. Ogilvie & Co. Pp. 124. 15 cents.

Cassell's "Family Magazine." January, 1884. New York: Cassell & Co. (Limited). Pp. 64. 15 cents monthly. $1.50 a year.

Developments in the Kinetic Theory of Solids, Liquids, and Gases. By H. T. Eddy, Ph. D. Cincinnati. Pp. 16.

Local Government and Free Schools in South Carolina. By B. James Ramage. A. B. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons. Pp. 40. 40 cents.

Suggestions on Library Architecture. American and Foreign. By J. L. Smithmeyer. Washington: Gibson Brothers. Pp. 31.

Notes on the Literature of Explosives. By Professor Charles E. Munroe, U. S. N. A., Annapolis, Md. Pp. 20.

The Evidence for Evolution in the History of the Extinct Mammalia. By E. D. Cope, Philadelphia. Salem, Mass.: Salem Press. Pp. 19.

The Winter Resorts of Florida, South Georgia, Louisiana, Texas, California, Mexico, and Cuba, and how to reach them. By John Temple Graves. Published by the Passenger Department, Savannah, Florida, and Western Railway Company. Pp. 103.

Injurious and other Insects of the State of New York. First Annual Report. By J. A. Lintner. Albany: Weed, Parsons & Co. Pp. 383.

Geology of the Comstock Lode. By George F. Becker, San Francisco, Cal. Pp. 3.

Proportional Representation: What it is and what it will do. By Simeon Stetson, San Francisco. Pp. 8.

Edison Electric Light Company. Twenty-first Bulletin. Pp. 62.

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Geology of the Eureka District, Nevada. Abstract of Report. By Arnold Hague. Washington: Government Printing-Office. Pp. 50.

United States Geological Survey. Second Annual Report, 1880-'81. J. W. Powell. Director. Washington: Government Printing-Office. Pp. 533, with Sixty-two Plates.

United States Geological Survey. Third Annual Report. By J. W. Powell, Director. Washington: Government Printing-Office. Pp. 561, with Thirty-two Plates.

On the Contents of a Bone-Cave in the Island of Anguilla, West Indies. Washington: Smithsonian Institution. Pp. 30, with Five Plates.

Archivos do Museu Nacional do Rio de Janeiro. (Archives of the National Museum of Rio de Janeiro.) Vol. III, 1878. Pp. 164, with Twelve Plates. Vol. IV, 1879. Pp. 154, with Seven Plates. Vol. V, 1880. Pp. 470. Rio de Janeiro: De Machado & Co.

Where did Life begin? By G. Hilton Scribner. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. Pp. 64.

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Excursions of an Evolutionist. By John Fiske. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin & Co. Pp. 379. $2.

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An Examination of the Philosophy of the Unknowable as expounded by Herbert Spencer. By William M. Lacy. Philadelphia: Benjamin F. Lacy. Pp. 235.

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Tertiary History of the Grand Canon District. By Clarence E. Dutton. Washington: Government Printing-Office. Pp. 264, with an Atlas containing Twenty large Plates and Panoramas.