Popular Science Monthly/Volume 31/June 1887/Literary Notices

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The Rise and Early Constitution of Universities, with a Survey of Mediæval Education. By S. S. Laurie, LL.D. New York: D. Appleton & Co. Pp. 31 + 293. Price, $1.50.

The many teachers, parents, and others who are forced to decide between conflicting policies in higher education will be greatly helped toward an intelligent decision by a study of the methods which prevailed in the early universities. It is the aim of the third volume of the "International Education Series" to present a general survey of these methods. The author begins with a sketch of the schools whose character was determined by the union of Roman and Hellenic culture in the time of Augustus, and traces their decline after the Christianizing of the empire, and the rise of Christian schools in their stead. The influence of Christianity at first was to discourage the earlier culture, as tending to foster paganism, or, at best, as being a mere dissipation. All teaching in the Christian schools was with a view to pious uses, and the curriculum was generally restricted to arithmetic, reading the psalter, and music. These schools had reached quite a promising condition in the sixth century, but retrograded in the seventh and eighth, so that when Charlemagne became Emperor of the West the education of Europe was in a barbarous state. This monarch made the improvement and extension of the episcopal and monastery schools an important part of his policy. To his court at Aix he invited such men of learning as could be found. The emperor was fond of music, and promoted the reform of church singing, introducing the Gregorian Chants, and it is said, also the organ. But his reform in education, and that of Alfred in England a half-century later, were temporary in their effects. During the three centuries after the death of Charlemagne, learning languished in Europe, but among the Arabs at this period it was flourishing. About 1100 there arose studia generalia, or what we should now designate as professional schools, called forth, as Professor Laurie believes, by the growth of learning demanding specialization, by the rise of a lay feeling in connection with the work of the physician, the lawyer, and even the theologian, and by the actual specializing of the three leading studies at different centers of instruction. These schools were open to all the world, free from monastic rule, and self-governing. The name university came later. In 1224, Frederick II combined the three faculties with a school of arts at Naples, and incorporated the University of Naples, with definite authority and privileges. The University of Bologna first became noted as a school of civil law; later instruction in canon law, arts, medicine, and theology, came to be given. The University of Paris had a similar gradual development. The term universitas had at first no reference to the scope of the curriculum, but meant simply a community. In form of government, the literary communities copied the free trade-guilds. The rights to practice and to teach medicine were the first degrees. The degree of Baccalaureus Artium originally marked the end of what was regarded as a preparatory course, fitting the student to commence his study in arts for the master's or teacher's degree. Professor Laurie sets the time of the beginning of university life at Oxford, at about 1140, and at Cambridge about 1200, and he thinks their university organization arose about 1230, after the large migration of students came to them from Paris. The University of Prague, founded in 1348, by Charles IV, was the starting-point of the great German system of universities. It followed the plan of Paris, where Charles had been a student. In his closing chapter Professor Laurie gives an interesting account of the university studies and the conditions of graduation in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, from which the reader may learn how many current academic forms are survivals of mediæval practices.

Elements of Physiological Psychology. By George T. Ladd, Professor of Philosophy in Yale University. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1887. Pp. 696. Price, $4.50.

We consider this the best book that has ever been published in America upon that particular branch of psychology of which it principally treats. It deals chiefly with the nervous mechanism and correlations with the mind, embracing under the latter head questions of the localization of cerebral functions, the quality of sensations, their quantity, the various presentations of sense, the time-relations of mental phenomena, feelings and motions, the physical basis of the higher faculties, and certain statical relations of the body and mental phenomena. Thus far and within these limits the book is excellent. The latest results of the study of mind from the physical point of view are thoroughly exhibited. The fruits of German study are especially well presented, and the recent work done by the Johns Hopkins University scholars in establishing the existence of the temperature sense, we are glad to see, meets, with the author's recognition. Without taking the space to particularize merits, and without searching for particular and minor defects, we are justified, upon the whole, in commending highly this work as far as the close of Part Second.

The third part, entitled "The Nature of Mind," ought to have been entirely omitted. It is not only superfluous, but painfully unsatisfactory. No sufficient foundation is laid for what is said, and the treatment itself is extremely inadequate. Until the other branches of psychology beyond the physiological are considered, even hypotheses or surmises respecting the ultimate nature of mind are out of place. The author in his introduction attempts to justify the metaphysical discussions and theses with which the work closes on the ground that psychology inevitably leads up to philosophical questions, and must furnish the basis upon which they are to be answered. Undoubtedly so; but that does not warrant a writer who makes a book covering only a portion of psychology in giving us his metaphysics as if established by psychology generally. His work presents only a part of the data, and until he has gone over the whole ground he has no business with ultimate questions. The topic, "The Nature of Mind," is indeed interesting, but it is greatly to be regretted that Professer Ladd could not restrain himself from discussing it until the opportunity was afforded in some clearly appropriate connection.

A Treatise on Surveying, comprising the Theory and the Practice. By William M. Gillespie, LL. D. Revised and enlarged by Cady Staley, Ph. D. New York: D. Appleton & Co. Pp. 549 and 127. Price, $3.50.

Professor Gillespie's standard treatise on "Land-Surveying," published in 1855, was prepared with a view of producing "a very plain introduction to the subject, easy to be mastered by the young scholar or the practical man of little previous acquirement, the only prerequisites being arithmetic and a little geometry; and at the same time to make the instruction of such a character as to lay a foundation broad enough and deep enough for the most complete superstructure which the professional student may subsequently wish to raise upon it." A second work, on "Leveling and Higher Surveying," was left unfinished at the author's death, but was completed by the editor of the present volume, and published in 1870. These two works have now been revised and combined by Dr. Staley. The general divisions of the resulting treatise are land surveying, leveling, topography, triangular surveying, hydrographical surveying, and mining surveying. Somewhat more than half of the body of the volume is occupied with the first of these divisions, comprising minute descriptions of instruments, directions for making measurements, keeping field-notes, platting surveys, and practical instruction in laying out, parting off, and dividing up land, including the methods used in surveying the public lands of the United States. In the section on leveling, spirit-leveling receives most attention, and brief accounts are given of the methods of trigonometric and barometric leveling. Under topography, modes of topographical representation are abundantly illustrated, and the use of the plane table is described.

An Appendix is devoted to a synopsis of plane trigonometry, and another takes up certain theorems relating to transversals, harmonic division, and the complete quadrilateral. Following these are an analytical table of contents, traverse-tables, tables of chords, logarithms, logarithmic sines, etc., and natural sines, etc., a stadia table, and a table of refraction in declination. The volume contains abundant illustrations of instruments and operations, and an isogonic chart of the United States for 1885-'86.

Social Studies. By R. Heber Newton, New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons. Pp. 380. Price, $1.

This is a collection of essays on social questions, some of which appeared originally as articles in periodicals, while others were prepared for special occasions; thus, three of them were read before the Church Congress; one before the United States Senate Committee on Education and Labor; one at the annual banquet of the Chamber of Commerce; and one before the Free Religious Association. The titles are: "A Bird's Eye View of the Labor Question"; "The Story of Co-operative Production and Co-operative Credit in the United States"; "Is the State just to the Workingman?" "Old-Time Guilds and Modern Commercial Associations"; "The Prevention of Intemperance"; "Moral Education in the Public Schools"; "The Free Kindergarten in Church Work"; "The Religious Aspect of Socialism"; and "Communism."

The Westminster Review. Vol. 128, No. 1. April, 1887. London. Trübner & Co. New York: The International News Company.

This Review, now in its sixty-fourth year, with the current number makes a new departure. Henceforth it will be issued monthly, and various changes will be made in the direction of suffusing the work with fresh vigor and adapting it to altered conditions of the reading public. Among other things it promises to "give special attention to the literature of science," and that "the exposition and discussion of scientific subjects (which, in comparison with the whole of the other departments of intellectual activity, have now attained commanding pre-eminence and supreme importance) will in future constitute a distinctive feature of the work." We understand that the intention is to allow about three eighths of the space of each monthly issue to American contributions; of the latter there are two in the number before us, both excellent articles: one, by Hon. Oscar S. Straus, United States Minister to Turkey, upon the "Development of Religious Liberty in America"; the other, by Thomas G. Shearman, Esq., entitled "The Protectionist Revival in Great Britain." These articles have an American copyright. The next number, we are informed, will contain an article by Mrs. Clara Lanza, of this city, upon "Fiction as National Literature," and another by Horace E. Deming, Esq., also of New York, upon "The Machine in American Politics."

Tables for the Determination of Common Minerals. By W. O. Crosby. Boston: J. Allen Crosby. Pp. 74.

The reasons which have led Professor Crosby to publish these tables are that the best tables which have preceded them are overloaded with descriptions of minerals seldom met with, and give determinations based largely on chemical properties, which are not so conveniently ascertainable as the morphologic and physical properties. Professor Crosby's tables, which are an out-growth of his experience as an instructor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, aim to determine about two hundred species—all that the student is likely to have occasion to identify—by their more obvious physical and structural features, adding chemical tests to be used when the identification is not otherwise perfectly satisfactory. Only those tests have been selected requiring the minimum of apparatus, reagents, and previous chemical training. The properties of minerals, and the chemical and blow-pipe tests referred to in the tables, are explained in an introduction. In the tables, minerals are divided first into two classes, those with metallic and those with nonmetallic luster, and then by the color in the former class and the streak in the latter, and further by the hardness; they are subdivided into forty-one groups. A concise physical description of each species is given, by which it may be distinguished from the others of the same group, and the last column of the tables is devoted to chemical tests. An index of species is appended.

The Argentine General Catalogue. Mean Positions of Southern Stars determined at the National Observatory, Benjamin A. Gould, Director. Cordoba. 1886.

This volume puts the public in possession of the main results of Dr. Gould's great labors in Cordoba. The catalogue contains 32,448 stars, and there are many hundreds more in appended lists of clusters, the number of observations exceeding 145,000. The work includes nearly all the stars in the southern heavens, down to the 812 magnitude, the exceptions chiefly lying north of 23° of south declination, a region already covered by other catalogues. Of the surpassing accuracy of the work, and the minute care with which every part of it has been executed, it would be impertinent for us to speak. To the layman, the contemplation of such a monument of genius, bending itself to incalculable assiduity, is truly a moral lesson.

A Systematic Hand-Book. of Volumetric Analysis. Adapted to the Requirements of Pure Chemical Research, Pathological Chemistry, Pharmacy, Metallurgy, Manufacturing Chemistry, Photography, etc., and for the Valuation of Substances used in Commerce, Agriculture, and the Arts. By Francis Sutton, F.C.S., F.I.C. Fifth edition. Philadelphia: P. Blakiston, Son & Co. Pp. 491. Price, $4.50.

When discoveries of chemical reactions and methods are being published so voluminously as at present, frequent revisions are necessary to keep a manual of analysis abreast of the times. In preparing this edition of his hand-book, Mr. Sutton has completely revised the work, and has added new methods. He has excluded some of the matter of previous editions as being of little value, among which is the systematic analysis of soils and manures by volumetric methods, also that of indigo, for which no satisfactory process is known. The opening section of the book is devoted to a description of apparatus and instruments. The second section is on analysis by saturation, and comprises alkalimetry and acidimetry, including in each division the examination of a number of commercial products. This section includes descriptions of the new indicators derived from the azo-colors, which have been introduced recently by R. T. Thompson. The third section deals with analysis by oxidation or reduction, and the fourth with analysis by precipitation. The foregoing principles are then applied to the estimation of the important elements and radicals, which are taken up in alphabetical order. A chapter is devoted to the analysis of urine, potable waters, sewage, etc., and another to gas analysis. In the latter field there has been marked improvement in technical processes since the last edition of this work was issued. The book is well supplied with illustrations showing forms of apparatus, and methods of arranging it for special operations.

Mineral Resources of the United States. 1885. By Albert Williams, Jr. Washington: Government Printing-Office. Pp. 576.

The present volume is the third of a series designed to present the principal statistics concerning the mineral productions of the United States, together with such descriptive matter as will throw light upon the condition of the industries which those products materially affect, or will aid in utilizing material which has no value at present. The first volume covered 1882 and the first half of 1883; the second volume continued the record till the end of 1884. These volumes were noticed in the "Monthly" when they appeared. The present volume includes the calendar year 1885. The material for the accounts has been obtained by canvass for precise returns where that was practicable; otherwise, from estimates of authorities as checked by actual returns from all available sources. Much of it appears in the form of special articles by persons who are experts, or have given particular attention to the subject. The principle is observed of not repeating (except in the tables) information given the previous year; hence it happens that, where no change has been made in the conditions, attending any product, that title may temporarily disappear from the record. Prominence is given in the presentation to coal, coke, petroleum, natural gas, and the economical metals under some of which headings several articles of special value appear. Thus, Mr. Joseph D. Weeks treats of the manufacture of coke, of natural gas, manganese, and glass materials; Mr. S. H. Stowell, of petroleum; J. M. Swank, General Manager of the American Iron and Steel Association, gives a review of twenty-one years of progress in manufacture; C. Kirchhoff, Jr., contributes articles on the copper, lead, and zinc industries of the United States; Mr. David T. Day, on chromium, zirconium, phosphatic rock fertilizers, and iodine; Mr. N. S. Sproule, on structural materials; Mr. George F. Kunz, on precious stones; William C. Day, on sulphur and feldspar; Herbert J. Davis, on pyrites; Marcus Benjamin, on mineral paints; G. F. Perrenoud, on talc; and A. C. Peale, on mineral waters.

A Treatise on Algebra. By Professors Oliver, Wait, and Jones, of Cornell University Ithaca, N. Y.: Dudley F. Finch. Pp. 412.

This work is a text-book for college classes, being planned especially for the classes conducted by its authors. It is, therefore, not a book for beginners, but for students who have already studied the elements of algebra and geometry. In writing it the authors have had two rules for their guidance. One was, to assume no previous knowledge of algebra, but, starting from primary definitions and axioms, to develop the elementary principles in logical order; the other was to define clearly every word and symbol used in a technical sense, to state formally every general principle, and, if not an axiom, to prove it rigorously, to state formally every general problem, and to give a rule for its solution with reasons, examples, and checks. The book contains much matter that is not found in the common college algebras—more, in fact, than can be used with ordinary classes—yet its wide range is expected to make it valuable as a reference-book for teachers, and as a guide for students who wish to pursue the study beyond the usual limits. The authors have pursued a course which they believe accords with the tendencies of modern algebraic work, in utilizing graphic representation, the elements of infinitesimal analysis, and the calculus of operations, for the purpose of attaining a natural and philosophical presentation of the subject. Symbolic language has been largely employed; in some cases larger meanings have been given to old words, and new words and symbols have been introduced. Another edition is to contain chapters on the theory of equations, integer analysis, symbolic methods, determinants and groups, probabilities and insurance, and an index will be added.

The Scientific Writings of Joseph Henry. Washington: Published by the Smithsonian Institution. Two vols. Pp. 523, 559.

These volumes comprise the first collection that has been made of Professor Henry's scientific writings. The original papers, having been given to the world from time to time through a period of more than fifty years, and published in widely remote places, are now generally rare, and in many cases nearly inaccessible. Their value, even at this time, as we glance over them in these handsome volumes, might well strike with surprise persons who, recognizing how much advance has been made in research during the last sixty years, would naturally imagine that they were superseded by what has been discovered since they were written. But most of them were in the lead of the science of the time of their production, and some of them, even on subjects now of the most lively investigation, read as if they might have been written to-day. It was a becoming act in the Regents of the Smithsonian Institution to present these writings in the noble shape in which they appear; and we can join with them in the feeling which they express that it seemed to them "that justice to the name and memory of their distinguished Secretary who made the Institution what it is, no less than a due regard to the history of physical science in this country, and the interests of its present votaries, require that these writings should now be collected and made available." The act is all the more graceful, because, as the regents also observe, "it is noteworthy, and indeed is characteristic of their author, that he sedulously abstained from publishing any of his researches of the later period or reproducing any of the earlier ones—very important though he knew them to be—through the inviting channel of the 'Smithsonian Contributions,' or 'Miscellaneous Collections,' or in any way at the expense of the Smithsonian fund." The writings are naturally grouped under two periods: the first, comprising the record of the author's researches from 1824 to 1846, during his professorial career at Albany and Princeton; and the second that of his scientific work from 1817 to 1878, during his directorship of the Smithsonian Institution at Washington. The arrangement of the papers is chronological, except that the series recording the author's observations on the phenomena of sound are, for the sake of equalizing the size of the volumes, removed from their proper position in the second volume to the end of the first volume; and the second volume is made to begin with a continuous presentation of the series of meteorological essays. The publication is made under the direction and supervision of Dr. Asa Gray, the Hon. W. L. Wilson, and Professor S. F. Baird, committee.

Transactions of the Modern Language Association of America. 1884-'85. Vol. I. Baltimore: Published by the Association. Pp. 250: Modern Language Notes. A. Marshall Elliott, Managing Editor. Eight numbers a year. Baltimore. Pp. 48. Price, 15 cents a number.

We have already noticed the formation of the Modern Language Association, and its objects, which may be briefly expressed as to encourage and exalt the study of the modern languages, and to secure to them their equal place of consideration with the ancient languages and other branches of college study. The present volume of its "Transactions," with its eighteen papers on various aspects of the subject, shows how well it is working to its purpose. Two of the papers are mainly literary. A half-dozen of them may be grammatical. Professor Alcée Fortier gives an interesting account of "The French Language in Louisiana and the Negro-French Dialect." The other papers refer more or less directly to practical questions of instruction in modern languages and English literature. Professor W. T. Hewett considers the aims and methods of college instruction in modern languages; Professor N. G. Brandt inquires how far our teaching and text-books should have a scientific basis; and Professor J. M. Hart, how the college course in English literature may be improved. Professor F. V. N. Painter outlines "A Modern Classical Course"; Professor T. W. Hunt defines the place of English in the college curriculum; and Dr. Francis B. Gunmere asks, "What Place has Old English Philology in our Elmentary School?" "German Classics as a Means of Education"(Goethe) is discussed by Dr. Julius Goebel;" The Requirements in English for Admission to College," by Professor G. R. McElroy; "The Use of English in teaching Foreign Languages" by Professor H. C. G. von Jagemann; and "The Real-Gymnasium Question," by Professor A. Marshall Elliott.

The "Modern Language Notes" began its second year with the January number, 1887, considerably more than twice as large as was the first number, yet with price unchanged, and with subscriptions and advertising lists that have more than covered expenses since the sixth issue. The matter is of a piece with that of the "Transactions," with the addition of book reviews, brief paragraphs, and such current news as has a connection with modern language studies. It is intended henceforth to give, with running comments, the titles of leading articles appearing in foreign journals devoted to the modern languages, and to keep abreast with the best production in this branch of linguistic science.

The American Naturalist. Vol. XXI. No. 1. January, 1887. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Company. Pp. 110. Price, $4 a year.

With the beginning of the current year, this periodical passed into the hands of the J. B. Lippincott Company, of Philadelphia. Professor Cope continues as leading editor, while Professor Packard, his associate, retires, and is succeeded by J. S. Kingsley. With these gentlemen co-operate seven experts in their special branches of science as "Department Editors" in Geography, Mineralogy, Botany, Embryology, Physiology, Anthropology, and Microscopy. The publishers announce that the history of the "Naturalist" during the twenty years of its existence has been one of gradual development, that its subscription list now much exceeds that of any previous period, and its prosperity is fully assured. It is creditable to our people that this should be so, for appreciation of a journal of this character, and of one that maintains so high a standard as that of the "Naturalist," is a sign of no ordinary degree of cultivation, and of a desire to learn science by working in it. The "Naturalist" was a pioneer in its field, and it occupies a sphere which no other journal so fully and so peculiarly fills. In last year's volumes original articles appeared from one hundred American naturalists, and a like list of contributors is in prospective for the present year. In the hands of so extensive and successful a house as that of its new proprietors, its opportunities for usefulness are certain to be greatly increased.

Latin Word-Building. By Charles O. Gates. New York: D. Appleton & Co. Pp. 160. Price, 98 cents.

This manual is intended to aid in removing the difficulty which Latin students feel in translating at sight, growing out of ignorance of the exact meaning of the root-words. Experience has taught that the vocabulary is more readily mastered and exact and definite meanings of words are more easily acquired and retained by making familiar the significance of the roots and associating with it the meanings of the modifications, with affixes and suffixes, endings, etc., by which they are affected, and so reaching the significance of derivative words by a kind of general rule, than by looking out all the words singly in the dictionary. The manual aims to assist in this process. The method is, first, to learn the exact meaning of the root-word; then to acquire the definite meanings of the more common words derived from the root-word; and then to utilize the information thus gained by translating sentences illustrating these words from the author next to be read in regular course. The first part of the volume comprises an etymological vocabulary, in which the meanings of the root-words, their modifications, and groups of their derivatives are given, with space left on the page for the insertion by the pupil of such new matter as his readings may suggest. The second part contains sentences from Cæsar and Cicero, to which what is learned from the vocabulary may be applied. In the appendixes are given tables of the meanings of prepositions in composition, and of the common terminations of words; exercises on forms; and rules for translation.

Telegraphing to and from Railway-Trains: Duplex Telephony. By Dr. A. M. Rosebrugh. Pp. 11.

These are two papers which were read before the Canadian Institute, discussing the question of the priority of invention of the two processes named. Both inventions are claimed by the author for Canada.



"Art and Letters," an Illustrated Bimonthly Magazine. April, 1887. New Orleans, La.: New Orleans Publishing Company. Pp. 40. 50 cents a number, $3 a year.

Alcott, A. N. The Problem of Fellowship in Religion. A Study of the Present Unitarian situation. Pp. 38.

Currier, Andrew F M. D. Some Considerations concerning Cancer of the Uterus. New York: Pp. 17.

United States Bureau of Statistics. Quarterly Report to December 31, 1886. Washington: Government Printing-Office. Pp. 80.

Kellogg, E. L., & Co, New York. The Best One Hundred Books. Pp. 68. 20 cents. Books for Young People. Pp. 20.

Harrower, Henry D. Captain Glazier and his Lake. New York: Ivison, Blakeman & Co. Pp. 58.

Chaillé, Sanford E., Tulano University. Louisiana. Abuse of Alcoholics by the Healthy. Pp. 36.

Marsh, Professor O. O. American Jurassic Mammals. Pp. 20, with Four Plates.

Meigs, Joe V. The Meigs Elevated Railway System. Boston. Pp. 182.

Snow, Marshall S. The City Government of St. Louis. Baltimore: N. Murray. Pp.40. 25 cents.

Adams. Herbert B. American Historical Association. Report of the Proceedings, Third Annual Meeting. 1886. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons. Pp. 104. $1.

Shufeldt, R. W. The Veterinary Service of the United States Army. Pp. 6. The Camera and Field Ornithology. Pp. 2.

Harrison, J. B. The Latest Studies on Indian Reservations. Philadelphia: Indian Rights Association. Pp. 233. Free to members.

"The American Missionary." Monthly. New York: American Missionary Association. Pp. 32. 50 cents a year.

Yandell, David W., M. D. Doctorate Address at the Semi-Centennial Anniversary of the University of Louisville Medical Department. Pp. 26.

Stowell, T. B., Ph. D. Natural History in Secondary Schools. Pp. 5.

Dubois, Professor A. J. Science and the Spiritual. Bridgeport, Conn.: Bridgeport Scientific Society. Pp. 32.

Agricultural College of Michigan. Feeding Steers of Different Breeds. Pp. 8.

White, Andrew D. A History of the Doctrine of Comets. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons. Pp. 43. 25 cents.

Bulletin of the Scientific Association of Peoria, Ill. 1887. Pp. 92.

Stevenson, John J., New York city. The Faults of Southwest Virginia. Pp. 8.

Griswold, W. M., Washington, D. C. The Continuous Index to Periodicals. Bimonthly. March and April, 1887. Sheet. 50 cents a year.

Allen. Charles A., New Orleans, and others. What is Unitarianism? Pp. 18.

Western Unitarian Association, Chicago. Unitarian Christianity. Pp. 16.

State Reservation at Niagara. Third Annual Report of the Commissioners. Pp. 87.

Crothers, T. D., Hartford, Conn. Cause and Cure of Inebriety. Pp. 11.

Adams, Herbert B. The College of William and Mary. Washington: Government Printing-Office. Pp.89.

Rush, H. G, New Danville, Pa. The True Doctrine of Orbits. Pp. 133.

Pickering, Edward C. Report of the Photographic Study of Stellar Spectra at Harvard College Observatory. Cambridge, Mass.: John Wilson & Bon. Pp. 10, with Plate.

Brewster, Mary Shaw. First Book of Chemistry. New York: D. Appleton & Co. Pp. 144. 77 cents.

Mendenhall, T. C. A Century of Electricity. Boston and New York: Houghton, Mifflin & Co. Pp. 229. $1.25.

Heron-Allen, Edward, and Horsely, Rosamund Brunei. Practical Cheirosophy. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons. Pp. 125.

Ebers, Georg. The Bride of the Nile. New York: William S. Gottsberger. 2 vols. Pp. 886 and 378.

Rolfe, William J., editor, Tennyson's Enoch Arden, and other Poems. Boston: Ticknor & Co. Pp. 166. 75 cents.

Terry, Samuel Hough. Controlling Sex in Generation. New York: Fowler & Wells Company. Pp. 209.

Peck, William G. Elementary Treatise on Determinants. New York: A. S. Barnes & Co. Pp. 471.

Beal, W. J. Agricultural College of Michigan. Grasses of North America. Published by the author. Pp. 457. $2.50.

"Annual Statistician." 1887. L. P. McCarthy, Editor and Proprietor. San Francisco. Pp. 648.

Crane, Thomas Frederick. Le Romantismo Française. A Selection from the Writers of the French Romantic School. 1824-'48. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons.

Nicholson, Henry Alleyne. Text-Book of Zoology for Junior Students. Fourth edition, revised and enlarged. New York: D. Appleton & Co. Pp. 888.

Hunt, T. Sterry. A New Basis for Chemistry. Boston: Samuel E. Cassino. Pp. 165.

Andrews. C. C. Brazil. Its Condition and Prospects. New York: D. Appleton & Co. Pp. 852.

Adams, Herbert C. Public Debts. New York: D. Appleton & Co. Pp. 407. $2.50.

Miller, L. W. The Essentials of Perspective. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. Pp. 107. $1.50.

Cook, George H. Geological Survey of New Jersey. Annual Report for 1886. Trenton, N. J. Pp. 254.

Bancroft. Hubert Howe. History of Central America. Vol. I, 1501-1580. San Francisco: The History Company. Pp. 704. $5.